Research Article
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Evaluation of university students' knowledge, attitudes, and practices on food safety in Bolu, Türkiye

Year 2022, Volume 8, Issue 4, 321 - 333, 01.10.2022
https://doi.org/10.3153/FH22030

Abstract

This study aims to assess the food safety knowledge, attitudes, and practices of university students in Türkiye. A cross-sectional study was conducted with the participation of 630 university students from the departments of Gastronomy and Culinary Arts (GCA), Food Engineering (FE), Nursing (NUR), and Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation (PTR) in Bolu, Türkiye. The GCA students scored the highest (25.46 ±2.85) and the NUR students scored the lowest (21.81 ±3.27) on food safety knowledge. The GCA students scored the highest (51.42 ±5.58) and the NUR students scored the lowest (49.00 ±6.07) on food safety attitudes. The FE students scored the highest (10.12 ±1.69) and the NUR students scored the lowest (9.69 ±1.77) on food safety practices. The students who took a course on food safety had significantly higher scores on food safety knowledge, attitudes, and practices than those who did not. Although the students' food safety scores were above average, they had a lack of knowledge and concerns in many areas. It was emphasized the importance of food safety education to fill the knowledge gaps and thus to prevent foodborne illnesses.

References

  • Açıkalın, B. (2019). Knowledge, attitude and behavior of university students about food safety. Master of Science Thesis, Biruni University, Institute of Health Sciences, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, İstanbul.
  • Al-Shabib, N.A., Husain, F., Khan, J.M. (2017). Study on food safety concerns, knowledge and practices among university students in Saudi Arabia. Food Control, 73, 202-208. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2016.08.005
  • Avşar, İ.O. (2019). Determination of knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of university students on food safety. Master of Science Thesis, Hasan Kalyoncu University, Institute of Health Sciences, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Gaziantep.
  • Byrd-Bredbenner, C., Maurer, J., Wheatley, V., Schaffner, D., Bruhn, C., Blalock, L. (2007). Food safety self-reported behaviors and cognitions of young adults: Results of a national study. Journal of Food Protection, 70 (8), 1917-1926. https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-70.8.1917
  • CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). (2007). Bacterial foodborne and diarrheal disease national case surveillance, Annual report, 2005, Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/nationalsurveillance/pdfs/fbsurvsumm2005.pdf (accessed 31.10.2021)
  • Chuang, E., Thomas, M., Feng Y. (2021). Young adult food safety knowledge gaps and perceptions of roommates’ food handling practices: A survey of university students in Indiana. Food Control, 126, 108055. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2021.108055
  • Clayton, D.A., Griffith, C.J., Peters, A.C., Price, P. (2002). Food handlers’ beliefs and self-reported practices. International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 12, 25-39. https://doi.org/10.1080/09603120120110031
  • Courtney, S.M., Majowicz, S.E., Dubin, J.A. (2016). Food safety knowledge of undergraduate students at a Canadian university: Results of an online survey. BMC Public Health, 16(1), 1147. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-016-3818-y Egan, M.B., Raats, M.M., Grubb, S.M., Eves, A., Lumbers, M.L., Dean, M.S., Adams, M.R. (2007). A review of food safety and food hygiene training studies in the commercial sector. Food Control, 18, 1180e1190. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2006.08.001
  • Ergönül, B. (2013). Consumer awareness and perception to food safety: A consumer analysis. Food Control, 32, 461-471. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2013.01.018
  • Erden, C. (2012). Food safety problems in Turkey and feasibility of educational methods in embracement of food security. Master of Science Thesis, Namık Kemal University, Institute of Science, Department of Agricultural Economics, Tekirdağ.
  • Ferk C.C., Calder, B.L., Camire, M.E. (2016). Assessing the food safety knowledge of university of Maine students. Journal of Food Science Education, 15, 14-22. https://doi.org/10.1111/1541-4329.12076
  • Food Safety News Site. (2015, September 15). Retrieved July 30, 2022, from https://www.foodsafetynews.com/2015/09/turkeys-food-safety-problems-magnified-by-unregistered-facilities/
  • Garayoa, R., Córdoba, M., García-Jalón, I., Sanchez-Villegas, A., Vitas, A.I. (2005). Relationship between consumer food safety knowledge and reported behavior among students from health sciences in one region of Spain. Journal of Food Protection, 68, 2631-2636. https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-68.12.2631
  • Giritlioglu, İ., Batman, O., Tetik, N. (2011). The knowledge and practice of food safety and hygiene of cookery students in Turkey. Food Control, 22, 838-842. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2010.09.016
  • Greig, J.D., Todd, E.C., Bartleson, C.A., Michaels, B S. (2007). Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in spread of foodborne disease, Part 1, Description of the problem, methods, and agents involved. Journal of Food Protection, 70 (7), 1752-1761. https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-70.7.1752
  • Haapala, I., Probart, C. (2004). Food safety, perceptions and behaviours among middle school students. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 36, 71-76. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1499-4046(06)60136-X
  • Hassan, H.F., Dimassi, H. (2014). Food safety and handling knowledge and practices of Lebanese university students. Food Control, 40, 127-133. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2013.11.040
  • Hobbs, B.C., Roberts, D. (2001). Food poisoning and food hygiene (Sixth edition). London: Arnold-Hodder Headline Group, ISBN 034053740X
  • İncedal-Sonkaya, Z., Elçin, B., Arif, A. (2018). University students food literacy and food safety knowledge, attitudes and behaviors “Example of Amasya University Sabuncuoğlu Şerefeddin Health Services Vocational School”. Turkish Bulletin of Hygiene and Experimental Biology, 75(1), 53-64. https://doi.org/10.5505/TurkHijyen.2018.99710
  • İstanbullugil, F.R., Gürbüz, Ü. (2019). Determining the level of food safety awareness of university students in Bishkek; A case study. Manas Journal of Agriculture Veterinary and Life Sciences. 9(2), 85-90.
  • Jevsnik, M., Hlebec, V., Raspor, P. (2008). Consumers awareness of food safety from shopping to eating. Food Control, 19, 737-745. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2007.07.017
  • Lange, M., Göranzon, H., Fleig, L., Marklinder M. (2018). Adolescents'sources for food safety knowledge and trust. British Food Journal, 120, 549-562. https://doi.org/10.1108/BFJ-03-2017-0159
  • Lazou, T., Georgiadis, M., Pentieva, K., McKevitt, A., Iossifidou, E. (2012). Food safety knowledge and food-handling practices of Greek university students: A questionnaire-based survey. Food Control, 28, 400-411. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2012.05.027
  • Luo, X., Xua, X., Chena, H., Baie, R., Zhangf, Y., Houg, X., … Zhaoa, Y. (2019). Food safety related knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) among the students from nursing, education and medical college in Chongqing, China. Food Control, 95, 181-188. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2018.07.042
  • Madaki, M.Y., Bavorova, M. (2019). Food safety knowledge of food vendors of higher educational institutions in Bauchi state, Nigeria. Food Control, 106, 106703. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2019.06.029
  • Marklinder, I., Ahlgren, R., Blücher, A., Ehn Börjesson, S-M., Hellkvist, F., Moazzami, M., … Danielsson-Tham, M-L. (2020). Food safety knowledge, sources thereof and self-reported behaviour among university students in Sweden. Food Control, 113, 107130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2020.107130
  • Mcmichael, P., Schneider, M. (2011). Food security politics and the millennium development goals. Third World Quarterly, 32(1), 119-139. https://doi.org/10.1080/01436597.2011.543818
  • Medeiros, L., Hillers, V., Kendall, P., Mason, A. (2001). Evaluation of food safety education for consumers. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 33(1), 27-34. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1499-4046(06)60067-5
  • Osaili, T.M., Obeidat, B.A., Jamous, D.O., Abu, B., Hiba A. (2011). Food safety knowledge and practices among college female students in north of Jordan. Food Control, 22, 269-276. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2010.07.009
  • Ovca, A., Jevsnik, M., Raspor P. (2014). Food safety awareness, knowledge and practices among students in Slovenia. Food Control, 42, 144-151. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2014.01.036
  • Rössvoll, H., Lavik, R., Ueland, Ö., Jocobsen, E., Hagtvedt, T., Langsud, S. (2013). Food safety practices among Norwegian consumers. Journal of Food Protection, 76, 1939-1947. https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-12-269
  • Sharif, L., Al-Malki T. (2010). Knowledge, attitude and practice of Taif university students on food poisoning. Food Control, 21, 55-60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2009.03.015
  • Strateva, D., Odeyemi, O.A., Pavlova, A., Kyuchukovaa, R., Fatehic, F., Bamidele, F.A. (2017). Food safety knowledge and hygiene practices among veterinary medicine students at Trakia University, Bulgaria. Journal of Infection and Public Health, 10, 778-782. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiph.2016.12.001
  • Şanlier, N. (2009). The knowledge and practice of food safety by young and adult consumers. Food Control, 20(6), 538-42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2008.08.006
  • Şanlıer, N., Konaklıoğlu, E. (2012). Food safety knowledge, attitude and food handling practices of students. British Food Journal, 114(4), 469-480. https://doi.org/10.1108/00070701211219504
  • Tosun, D., Demirtaş, N. (2012). Türkiye’de kırmızı et ve et ürünleri sanayiinde gıda güvenliği sorunları ve öneriler. Journal of Agricultural Faculty of Uludag University, 26(1), 93-101.
  • Unklesbay, N., Sneed, J., Toma, R. (1998). College students’ attitudes, practices, and knowledge of food safety. Journal of Food Protection, 61(9), 1175-1180. https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-61.9.1175
  • USDA (2021). Leftovers and Food Safety. Retrieved from https://www.fsis.usda.gov/food-safety/safe-food-handling-and-preparation/food-safety-basics/leftovers-and-food-safety (accessed 31.12.2021).
  • WHO (2020). Food safety Key facts. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/food-safety (accessed 31.10.2021).

Year 2022, Volume 8, Issue 4, 321 - 333, 01.10.2022
https://doi.org/10.3153/FH22030

Abstract

References

  • Açıkalın, B. (2019). Knowledge, attitude and behavior of university students about food safety. Master of Science Thesis, Biruni University, Institute of Health Sciences, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, İstanbul.
  • Al-Shabib, N.A., Husain, F., Khan, J.M. (2017). Study on food safety concerns, knowledge and practices among university students in Saudi Arabia. Food Control, 73, 202-208. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2016.08.005
  • Avşar, İ.O. (2019). Determination of knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of university students on food safety. Master of Science Thesis, Hasan Kalyoncu University, Institute of Health Sciences, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Gaziantep.
  • Byrd-Bredbenner, C., Maurer, J., Wheatley, V., Schaffner, D., Bruhn, C., Blalock, L. (2007). Food safety self-reported behaviors and cognitions of young adults: Results of a national study. Journal of Food Protection, 70 (8), 1917-1926. https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-70.8.1917
  • CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). (2007). Bacterial foodborne and diarrheal disease national case surveillance, Annual report, 2005, Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/nationalsurveillance/pdfs/fbsurvsumm2005.pdf (accessed 31.10.2021)
  • Chuang, E., Thomas, M., Feng Y. (2021). Young adult food safety knowledge gaps and perceptions of roommates’ food handling practices: A survey of university students in Indiana. Food Control, 126, 108055. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2021.108055
  • Clayton, D.A., Griffith, C.J., Peters, A.C., Price, P. (2002). Food handlers’ beliefs and self-reported practices. International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 12, 25-39. https://doi.org/10.1080/09603120120110031
  • Courtney, S.M., Majowicz, S.E., Dubin, J.A. (2016). Food safety knowledge of undergraduate students at a Canadian university: Results of an online survey. BMC Public Health, 16(1), 1147. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-016-3818-y Egan, M.B., Raats, M.M., Grubb, S.M., Eves, A., Lumbers, M.L., Dean, M.S., Adams, M.R. (2007). A review of food safety and food hygiene training studies in the commercial sector. Food Control, 18, 1180e1190. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2006.08.001
  • Ergönül, B. (2013). Consumer awareness and perception to food safety: A consumer analysis. Food Control, 32, 461-471. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2013.01.018
  • Erden, C. (2012). Food safety problems in Turkey and feasibility of educational methods in embracement of food security. Master of Science Thesis, Namık Kemal University, Institute of Science, Department of Agricultural Economics, Tekirdağ.
  • Ferk C.C., Calder, B.L., Camire, M.E. (2016). Assessing the food safety knowledge of university of Maine students. Journal of Food Science Education, 15, 14-22. https://doi.org/10.1111/1541-4329.12076
  • Food Safety News Site. (2015, September 15). Retrieved July 30, 2022, from https://www.foodsafetynews.com/2015/09/turkeys-food-safety-problems-magnified-by-unregistered-facilities/
  • Garayoa, R., Córdoba, M., García-Jalón, I., Sanchez-Villegas, A., Vitas, A.I. (2005). Relationship between consumer food safety knowledge and reported behavior among students from health sciences in one region of Spain. Journal of Food Protection, 68, 2631-2636. https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-68.12.2631
  • Giritlioglu, İ., Batman, O., Tetik, N. (2011). The knowledge and practice of food safety and hygiene of cookery students in Turkey. Food Control, 22, 838-842. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2010.09.016
  • Greig, J.D., Todd, E.C., Bartleson, C.A., Michaels, B S. (2007). Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in spread of foodborne disease, Part 1, Description of the problem, methods, and agents involved. Journal of Food Protection, 70 (7), 1752-1761. https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-70.7.1752
  • Haapala, I., Probart, C. (2004). Food safety, perceptions and behaviours among middle school students. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 36, 71-76. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1499-4046(06)60136-X
  • Hassan, H.F., Dimassi, H. (2014). Food safety and handling knowledge and practices of Lebanese university students. Food Control, 40, 127-133. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2013.11.040
  • Hobbs, B.C., Roberts, D. (2001). Food poisoning and food hygiene (Sixth edition). London: Arnold-Hodder Headline Group, ISBN 034053740X
  • İncedal-Sonkaya, Z., Elçin, B., Arif, A. (2018). University students food literacy and food safety knowledge, attitudes and behaviors “Example of Amasya University Sabuncuoğlu Şerefeddin Health Services Vocational School”. Turkish Bulletin of Hygiene and Experimental Biology, 75(1), 53-64. https://doi.org/10.5505/TurkHijyen.2018.99710
  • İstanbullugil, F.R., Gürbüz, Ü. (2019). Determining the level of food safety awareness of university students in Bishkek; A case study. Manas Journal of Agriculture Veterinary and Life Sciences. 9(2), 85-90.
  • Jevsnik, M., Hlebec, V., Raspor, P. (2008). Consumers awareness of food safety from shopping to eating. Food Control, 19, 737-745. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2007.07.017
  • Lange, M., Göranzon, H., Fleig, L., Marklinder M. (2018). Adolescents'sources for food safety knowledge and trust. British Food Journal, 120, 549-562. https://doi.org/10.1108/BFJ-03-2017-0159
  • Lazou, T., Georgiadis, M., Pentieva, K., McKevitt, A., Iossifidou, E. (2012). Food safety knowledge and food-handling practices of Greek university students: A questionnaire-based survey. Food Control, 28, 400-411. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2012.05.027
  • Luo, X., Xua, X., Chena, H., Baie, R., Zhangf, Y., Houg, X., … Zhaoa, Y. (2019). Food safety related knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) among the students from nursing, education and medical college in Chongqing, China. Food Control, 95, 181-188. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2018.07.042
  • Madaki, M.Y., Bavorova, M. (2019). Food safety knowledge of food vendors of higher educational institutions in Bauchi state, Nigeria. Food Control, 106, 106703. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2019.06.029
  • Marklinder, I., Ahlgren, R., Blücher, A., Ehn Börjesson, S-M., Hellkvist, F., Moazzami, M., … Danielsson-Tham, M-L. (2020). Food safety knowledge, sources thereof and self-reported behaviour among university students in Sweden. Food Control, 113, 107130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2020.107130
  • Mcmichael, P., Schneider, M. (2011). Food security politics and the millennium development goals. Third World Quarterly, 32(1), 119-139. https://doi.org/10.1080/01436597.2011.543818
  • Medeiros, L., Hillers, V., Kendall, P., Mason, A. (2001). Evaluation of food safety education for consumers. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 33(1), 27-34. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1499-4046(06)60067-5
  • Osaili, T.M., Obeidat, B.A., Jamous, D.O., Abu, B., Hiba A. (2011). Food safety knowledge and practices among college female students in north of Jordan. Food Control, 22, 269-276. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2010.07.009
  • Ovca, A., Jevsnik, M., Raspor P. (2014). Food safety awareness, knowledge and practices among students in Slovenia. Food Control, 42, 144-151. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2014.01.036
  • Rössvoll, H., Lavik, R., Ueland, Ö., Jocobsen, E., Hagtvedt, T., Langsud, S. (2013). Food safety practices among Norwegian consumers. Journal of Food Protection, 76, 1939-1947. https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-12-269
  • Sharif, L., Al-Malki T. (2010). Knowledge, attitude and practice of Taif university students on food poisoning. Food Control, 21, 55-60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2009.03.015
  • Strateva, D., Odeyemi, O.A., Pavlova, A., Kyuchukovaa, R., Fatehic, F., Bamidele, F.A. (2017). Food safety knowledge and hygiene practices among veterinary medicine students at Trakia University, Bulgaria. Journal of Infection and Public Health, 10, 778-782. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiph.2016.12.001
  • Şanlier, N. (2009). The knowledge and practice of food safety by young and adult consumers. Food Control, 20(6), 538-42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2008.08.006
  • Şanlıer, N., Konaklıoğlu, E. (2012). Food safety knowledge, attitude and food handling practices of students. British Food Journal, 114(4), 469-480. https://doi.org/10.1108/00070701211219504
  • Tosun, D., Demirtaş, N. (2012). Türkiye’de kırmızı et ve et ürünleri sanayiinde gıda güvenliği sorunları ve öneriler. Journal of Agricultural Faculty of Uludag University, 26(1), 93-101.
  • Unklesbay, N., Sneed, J., Toma, R. (1998). College students’ attitudes, practices, and knowledge of food safety. Journal of Food Protection, 61(9), 1175-1180. https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-61.9.1175
  • USDA (2021). Leftovers and Food Safety. Retrieved from https://www.fsis.usda.gov/food-safety/safe-food-handling-and-preparation/food-safety-basics/leftovers-and-food-safety (accessed 31.12.2021).
  • WHO (2020). Food safety Key facts. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/food-safety (accessed 31.10.2021).

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Food Science and Technology
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Emrah GÖKÇEEL>
BOLU ABANT IZZET BAYSAL UNIVERSITY, FACULTY OF TOURISM, DEPARMENT OF GASTRONOMY AND CULINARY ARTS
0000-0002-8417-4336
Türkiye


Aylin AKOĞLU> (Primary Author)
BOLU ABANT IZZET BAYSAL UNIVERSITY, FACULTY OF HEALTH SCIENCES, NUTRITION AND DIETETICS
0000-0002-0136-4928
Türkiye

Thanks Authors are also thankful for the students who participated in this research study.
Publication Date October 1, 2022
Application Date June 2, 2022
Acceptance Date September 5, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 8, Issue 4

Cite

Bibtex @research article { jfhs1125050, journal = {Food and Health}, eissn = {2602-2834}, address = {Vidin Caddesi No:28 D:4 Kocamustafapaşa 34107 Fatih İstanbul}, publisher = {Özkan ÖZDEN}, year = {2022}, volume = {8}, number = {4}, pages = {321 - 333}, doi = {10.3153/FH22030}, title = {Evaluation of university students' knowledge, attitudes, and practices on food safety in Bolu, Türkiye}, key = {cite}, author = {Gökçeel, Emrah and Akoğlu, Aylin} }
APA Gökçeel, E. & Akoğlu, A. (2022). Evaluation of university students' knowledge, attitudes, and practices on food safety in Bolu, Türkiye . Food and Health , 8 (4) , 321-333 . DOI: 10.3153/FH22030
MLA Gökçeel, E. , Akoğlu, A. "Evaluation of university students' knowledge, attitudes, and practices on food safety in Bolu, Türkiye" . Food and Health 8 (2022 ): 321-333 <http://jfhs.scientificwebjournals.com/en/pub/issue/72186/1125050>
Chicago Gökçeel, E. , Akoğlu, A. "Evaluation of university students' knowledge, attitudes, and practices on food safety in Bolu, Türkiye". Food and Health 8 (2022 ): 321-333
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Evaluation of university students' knowledge, attitudes, and practices on food safety in Bolu, Türkiye AU - EmrahGökçeel, AylinAkoğlu Y1 - 2022 PY - 2022 N1 - doi: 10.3153/FH22030 DO - 10.3153/FH22030 T2 - Food and Health JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 321 EP - 333 VL - 8 IS - 4 SN - -2602-2834 M3 - doi: 10.3153/FH22030 UR - https://doi.org/10.3153/FH22030 Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 Food and Health Evaluation of university students' knowledge, attitudes, and practices on food safety in Bolu, Türkiye %A Emrah Gökçeel , Aylin Akoğlu %T Evaluation of university students' knowledge, attitudes, and practices on food safety in Bolu, Türkiye %D 2022 %J Food and Health %P -2602-2834 %V 8 %N 4 %R doi: 10.3153/FH22030 %U 10.3153/FH22030
ISNAD Gökçeel, Emrah , Akoğlu, Aylin . "Evaluation of university students' knowledge, attitudes, and practices on food safety in Bolu, Türkiye". Food and Health 8 / 4 (October 2022): 321-333 . https://doi.org/10.3153/FH22030
AMA Gökçeel E. , Akoğlu A. Evaluation of university students' knowledge, attitudes, and practices on food safety in Bolu, Türkiye. Food Health. 2022; 8(4): 321-333.
Vancouver Gökçeel E. , Akoğlu A. Evaluation of university students' knowledge, attitudes, and practices on food safety in Bolu, Türkiye. Food and Health. 2022; 8(4): 321-333.
IEEE E. Gökçeel and A. Akoğlu , "Evaluation of university students' knowledge, attitudes, and practices on food safety in Bolu, Türkiye", Food and Health, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 321-333, Oct. 2022, doi:10.3153/FH22030

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