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COVID-19 phobia, mindful eating, eating habits and body weight change among university students during pandemic: A pilot study

Yıl 2022, Cilt 8, Sayı 2, 118 - 126, 01.04.2022
https://doi.org/10.3153/FH22012

Öz

To evaluate the effects of the COVID-19 phobia on mindful eating, eating habits and body weight change among university students. This study was carried out with 385 university students who have been in social isolation at home for at least 2 months. The online survey was constituted via an internet-based questionnaire on Google forms. The survey includes demographics features, body weight, eating habits, change in appetite and consumption of food/food groups. COVID-19 Phobia Scale (C19P-S) and the Mindful Eating Questionnaire (MEQ) were used. Results: Both males and females had similar scores from C19P-S and MEQ. Body weight and BMI of students significantly increased during the pandemic period (p<0.05). The percentage of being underweight decreased and being pre-obese/obese increased during the pandemic period. The percentage of the increase in the consumption of sweets, toffees, candies and foods with sugar was high in both groups (male: 48.2%; female: 47.1%). The most increased consumption of food groups was fruit, and also fast food was the most decreased among the consumption of food groups in this study. In addition, a negative correlation was found between C19P-S and MEQ scores (r=-0.214, p<0.001). And also there was a negative correlation between the MEQ subscale of emotional eating scores and psychological, psycho-somatic and social subscales of C19P-S (p<0.01). C19P-S scores had significantly higher in those with increased or decreased appetite and MEQ scores had significantly higher in those who have decreased or unchanged appetite. COVID-19 phobia can affect mindful eating and eating habits during the social isolation/pandemic period in university students. It is important to increase mindful eating during the pandemic, to provide adequate and balanced nutrition, to reduce the risk of disease and to affect the course of the disease positively.

Kaynakça

  • Abbas, A.M., Kamel, M.M. (2020). Dietary habits in adults during quarantine in the context of COVID-19 pandemic. Obesity Medicine, 19, 100254. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.obmed.2020.100254
  • Ahorsu, D.K., Lin, C.Y., Imani, V., Saffari, M., Griffiths M.D., Pakpour, A.H. (2020). The fear of COVID-19 scale: development and initial validation. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 27, 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-020-00270-8
  • Alberts, H.J., Thewissen, R., Raes, L. (2012). Dealing with problematic eating behaviour. The effects of a mindfulness-based intervention on eating behaviour, food cravings, dichotomous thinking and body image concern. Appetite, 58, 847-51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2012.01.009
  • Allen, N.B., Chambers, R., Knight, W. (2006). Mindfulness-based psychotherapies: a review of conceptual foundations, empirical evidence and practical considerations. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 40, 285-94. https://doi.org/10.1080/j.1440-1614.2006.01794.x
  • Ammar, A., Brach, M., Trabelsi, K., Chtourou, H., Boukhris, O., Masmoudi, L., Bouaziz, B., Bentlage, E., How, D., Ahmed, M., et al. (2020). Effects of COVID-19 home confinement on eating behaviour and physical activity: Results of the ECLB-COVID19 International online survey. Nutrients, 12, 1583. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061583
  • Arpaci, I., Karataş, K., Baloğlu, M. (2020). The development and initial tests for the psychometric properties of the COVID-19 Phobia Scale (C19P-S). Personality and Individual Differences, 164, 110108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2020.110108 Baer, R.A., Fischer, S., Huss, D.B. (2005). Mindfulness and acceptance in the treatment of disordered eating. Journal of Rational-Emotive and Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 23, 281-300. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10942-005-0015-9
  • Brooks, S.K., Webster, R.K., Smith, L.E., Woodland, L., Wessely, S., Greenberg, N., Rubin, G.J. (2020). The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: rapid review of the evidence. The Lancet, 395(10227), 912-920. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30460-8 Butler, M.J., Barrientos, R.M. (2020). The impact of nutrition on COVID-19 susceptibility and long-term consequences. 2020. Brain Behavior and Immunity, 87, 53-54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2020.04.040
  • Cao, W., Fang, Z., Hou, G., Han, M., Xu, X., Dong J., Zheng, J. (2020). The psychological impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on college students in China. Psychiatry Research, 287, 112934. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.112934
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2021). Coping with stress. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/daily-life-coping/managing-stress-anxiety.html (accessed 10.05.2021).
  • Chen, N., Zhou, M., Dong, X., Qu, J., Gong, F., Han, Y., Qiu, Y., Wang, J., Liu, Y., Wei, Y., Xia, J., Yu, T., Zhang, X., Zhang, L. (2020). Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. The Lancet, 395, 507-513. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30211-7 Dallman, M.F. (2010). Stress-induced obesity and the emotional nervous system. Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism, 21, 159-165. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tem.2009.10.004 Forman, E.M., Butryn, M.L., Hoffman, K.L., Herbert. J.D. (2009). An open trial of an acceptance-based behavioral intervention for weight loss. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 16, 223-235. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpra.2008.09.005 Framson, C., Kristal, A.R., Schenk, J.M., Littman, A.J., Zeliadt, S., Benitez, D. (2009). Development and validation of the mindful eating questionnaire. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 109, 1439-1444. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jada.2009.05.006 Gritsenko, V., Skugarevsky, O., Konstantinov, V., Khamenka, N., Marinova, T., Reznik, A., Isralowitz, R. (2020). COVID 19 fear, stress, anxiety, and substance use among Russian and Belarusian university students. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 21, 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-020-00330-z
  • Karslıoğlu, A.Ş., Göz, B., İzci, B., Koç, C., Küllü, E., Kalanyuva, E., Şirin, E., Yıldırım, M., Ahioğlu, M., Kaygusuz, M., Yılmaz Özel, N., Karal, Ö., Doru, S.R., Yıldız, Ü., Öztürk, Y.T. (2020). COVID-19 hukuk kroniği. https://cdn.istanbul.edu.tr/FileHandler2.ashx?f=covid-19-hukuk-kronig%CC%86i-(11-26-mart)_637234231712445567.pdf (accessed 11.05.2021).
  • Klang, E., Kassim, G., Soffer, S., Freeman, R., Levin, M.A., Reich, D.L. (2020). Morbid obesity as an independent risk factor for COVID-19 mortality in hospitalized patients younger than 50. Obesity, 28(9), 1595-1599. https://doi.org/10.1002/oby.22913 Köse, G., Tayfur, M., Birincioğlu, İ, Dönmez, A. (2016). Yeme farkındalığı ölçeği’ni Türkçeye uyarlama çalışması. Bilişsel Davranışçı Psikoterapi ve Araştırmalar Dergisi, 3, 125-134. https://doi.org/10.5455/JCBPR.250644 Macht, M. (2008). How emotions affect eating: A five-way model. Appetite, 50, 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2007.07.002
  • Mei, S.L., Yu, J.X., He, B.W., Li, J.Y. (2011). Psychological investigation of university students in a university in Jilin Province. Medicine and Society, 24, 84-86.
  • Moynihan, A.B., Van Tilburg, W.A., Igou, E.R., Wisman, A., Donnelly, A.E., Mulcaire, J.B. (2010). Eaten up by boredom: Consuming food to escape awareness of the bored self. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 369. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00369 Muscogiuri, G., Barrea, L., Savastano, S., Colao, A. (2020). Nutritional recommendations for CoVID-19 quarantine. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 74, 850-851. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41430-020-0635-2
  • Omiwole, M., Richardson, C., Huniewicz, P., Dettmer, E., Paslakis, G. (2019). Review of mindfulness-related interventions to modify eating behaviors in adolescents. Nutrients, 11(12), 2917. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11122917 Ornell, F., Schuch, J.B., Sordi, A.O., Kessler, F.H.P. (2020). “Pandemic fear” and COVID-19: mental health burden and strategies. Brazilian Journal of Psychiatry, 42, 232-335. https://doi.org/10.1590/1516-4446-2020-0008 Pellegrini, M., Ponzo, V., Rosato, R., Scumaci, E., Goitre, I., Benso, A., Belcastro, S., Crespi, C., Michieli, F.D., Ghigo, E., Broglio, F., Bo, S. (2020). Changes in weight and nutritional habits in adults with obesity during the “lockdown” period caused by the COVID-19 virus emergency. Nutrient, 12, 2016. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072016 Peters, M.A., Wang, H., Ogunniran, M.O., Huang Y., Green, B., Chunga, J.O. , Quainoo, E.A., Ren, Z., Hollings, S., Mou, C., Khomera, S.W., Zhang, M., Zhou, S., Laimeche, A., Zheng, W., Xu, R., Jackson, L., Hayes, S. (2020). China’s internationalized higher education during Covid-19: collective student autoethnography. Postdigital Science and Education, 2, 968-988. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42438-020-00128-1
  • Reyes-Olavarría, D., Latorre-Román, P.A., Guzmán-Guzmán, I.P., Jerez-Mayorga, DCaamaño-Navarrete, F., Delgado-Floody, P. (2020). Positive and negative changes in food habits, physical activity patterns, and weight status during COVID-19 confinement: Associated factors in the chilean population. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(15), 5431. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155431 Robinson, E., Boyland, E., Chisholm, A., Harrold, J., Maloney, N.G., Marty, L., Mead, B.R., Noonan, R., Hard-man, C.A. (2021). Obesity, eating behavior and physical activity during COVID-19 lockdown: A study of UK adults. Appetite, 156, 104853. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2020.104853 Türk Tabipler Birliği (2020). COVID-19 pandemisi iki aylık değerlendirme raporu. https://www.ttb.org.tr/userfiles/files/covid19-rapor.pdf (accessed 06.05.2021). Van Strien, T. (2018). Causes of emotional eating and matched treatment of obesity. Current Diabetes Reports, 18(6), 35. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11892-018-1000-x World Health Organization (WHO) (2020). Archived: WHO timeline - COVID-19. https://www.who.int/news-room/detail/27-04-2020-who-timeline---covid-19 (accessed 18.05.2021).
  • World Health Organization (WHO) (2021a). Q&A on coronaviruses (COVID-19). https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel- coronavirus-2019/question-and-answers-hub/q-a-detail/q-a-coronaviruses (accessed 14.05.2021).
  • World Health Organization (WHO) (2021b). Body mass index – BMI. https://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/disease-prevention/nutrition/a-healthy-lifestyle/body-mass-index-bmi (accessed 25.05.2021).

Yıl 2022, Cilt 8, Sayı 2, 118 - 126, 01.04.2022
https://doi.org/10.3153/FH22012

Öz

Kaynakça

  • Abbas, A.M., Kamel, M.M. (2020). Dietary habits in adults during quarantine in the context of COVID-19 pandemic. Obesity Medicine, 19, 100254. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.obmed.2020.100254
  • Ahorsu, D.K., Lin, C.Y., Imani, V., Saffari, M., Griffiths M.D., Pakpour, A.H. (2020). The fear of COVID-19 scale: development and initial validation. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 27, 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-020-00270-8
  • Alberts, H.J., Thewissen, R., Raes, L. (2012). Dealing with problematic eating behaviour. The effects of a mindfulness-based intervention on eating behaviour, food cravings, dichotomous thinking and body image concern. Appetite, 58, 847-51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2012.01.009
  • Allen, N.B., Chambers, R., Knight, W. (2006). Mindfulness-based psychotherapies: a review of conceptual foundations, empirical evidence and practical considerations. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 40, 285-94. https://doi.org/10.1080/j.1440-1614.2006.01794.x
  • Ammar, A., Brach, M., Trabelsi, K., Chtourou, H., Boukhris, O., Masmoudi, L., Bouaziz, B., Bentlage, E., How, D., Ahmed, M., et al. (2020). Effects of COVID-19 home confinement on eating behaviour and physical activity: Results of the ECLB-COVID19 International online survey. Nutrients, 12, 1583. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061583
  • Arpaci, I., Karataş, K., Baloğlu, M. (2020). The development and initial tests for the psychometric properties of the COVID-19 Phobia Scale (C19P-S). Personality and Individual Differences, 164, 110108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2020.110108 Baer, R.A., Fischer, S., Huss, D.B. (2005). Mindfulness and acceptance in the treatment of disordered eating. Journal of Rational-Emotive and Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 23, 281-300. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10942-005-0015-9
  • Brooks, S.K., Webster, R.K., Smith, L.E., Woodland, L., Wessely, S., Greenberg, N., Rubin, G.J. (2020). The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: rapid review of the evidence. The Lancet, 395(10227), 912-920. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30460-8 Butler, M.J., Barrientos, R.M. (2020). The impact of nutrition on COVID-19 susceptibility and long-term consequences. 2020. Brain Behavior and Immunity, 87, 53-54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2020.04.040
  • Cao, W., Fang, Z., Hou, G., Han, M., Xu, X., Dong J., Zheng, J. (2020). The psychological impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on college students in China. Psychiatry Research, 287, 112934. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.112934
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2021). Coping with stress. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/daily-life-coping/managing-stress-anxiety.html (accessed 10.05.2021).
  • Chen, N., Zhou, M., Dong, X., Qu, J., Gong, F., Han, Y., Qiu, Y., Wang, J., Liu, Y., Wei, Y., Xia, J., Yu, T., Zhang, X., Zhang, L. (2020). Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. The Lancet, 395, 507-513. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30211-7 Dallman, M.F. (2010). Stress-induced obesity and the emotional nervous system. Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism, 21, 159-165. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tem.2009.10.004 Forman, E.M., Butryn, M.L., Hoffman, K.L., Herbert. J.D. (2009). An open trial of an acceptance-based behavioral intervention for weight loss. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 16, 223-235. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpra.2008.09.005 Framson, C., Kristal, A.R., Schenk, J.M., Littman, A.J., Zeliadt, S., Benitez, D. (2009). Development and validation of the mindful eating questionnaire. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 109, 1439-1444. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jada.2009.05.006 Gritsenko, V., Skugarevsky, O., Konstantinov, V., Khamenka, N., Marinova, T., Reznik, A., Isralowitz, R. (2020). COVID 19 fear, stress, anxiety, and substance use among Russian and Belarusian university students. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 21, 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-020-00330-z
  • Karslıoğlu, A.Ş., Göz, B., İzci, B., Koç, C., Küllü, E., Kalanyuva, E., Şirin, E., Yıldırım, M., Ahioğlu, M., Kaygusuz, M., Yılmaz Özel, N., Karal, Ö., Doru, S.R., Yıldız, Ü., Öztürk, Y.T. (2020). COVID-19 hukuk kroniği. https://cdn.istanbul.edu.tr/FileHandler2.ashx?f=covid-19-hukuk-kronig%CC%86i-(11-26-mart)_637234231712445567.pdf (accessed 11.05.2021).
  • Klang, E., Kassim, G., Soffer, S., Freeman, R., Levin, M.A., Reich, D.L. (2020). Morbid obesity as an independent risk factor for COVID-19 mortality in hospitalized patients younger than 50. Obesity, 28(9), 1595-1599. https://doi.org/10.1002/oby.22913 Köse, G., Tayfur, M., Birincioğlu, İ, Dönmez, A. (2016). Yeme farkındalığı ölçeği’ni Türkçeye uyarlama çalışması. Bilişsel Davranışçı Psikoterapi ve Araştırmalar Dergisi, 3, 125-134. https://doi.org/10.5455/JCBPR.250644 Macht, M. (2008). How emotions affect eating: A five-way model. Appetite, 50, 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2007.07.002
  • Mei, S.L., Yu, J.X., He, B.W., Li, J.Y. (2011). Psychological investigation of university students in a university in Jilin Province. Medicine and Society, 24, 84-86.
  • Moynihan, A.B., Van Tilburg, W.A., Igou, E.R., Wisman, A., Donnelly, A.E., Mulcaire, J.B. (2010). Eaten up by boredom: Consuming food to escape awareness of the bored self. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 369. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00369 Muscogiuri, G., Barrea, L., Savastano, S., Colao, A. (2020). Nutritional recommendations for CoVID-19 quarantine. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 74, 850-851. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41430-020-0635-2
  • Omiwole, M., Richardson, C., Huniewicz, P., Dettmer, E., Paslakis, G. (2019). Review of mindfulness-related interventions to modify eating behaviors in adolescents. Nutrients, 11(12), 2917. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11122917 Ornell, F., Schuch, J.B., Sordi, A.O., Kessler, F.H.P. (2020). “Pandemic fear” and COVID-19: mental health burden and strategies. Brazilian Journal of Psychiatry, 42, 232-335. https://doi.org/10.1590/1516-4446-2020-0008 Pellegrini, M., Ponzo, V., Rosato, R., Scumaci, E., Goitre, I., Benso, A., Belcastro, S., Crespi, C., Michieli, F.D., Ghigo, E., Broglio, F., Bo, S. (2020). Changes in weight and nutritional habits in adults with obesity during the “lockdown” period caused by the COVID-19 virus emergency. Nutrient, 12, 2016. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072016 Peters, M.A., Wang, H., Ogunniran, M.O., Huang Y., Green, B., Chunga, J.O. , Quainoo, E.A., Ren, Z., Hollings, S., Mou, C., Khomera, S.W., Zhang, M., Zhou, S., Laimeche, A., Zheng, W., Xu, R., Jackson, L., Hayes, S. (2020). China’s internationalized higher education during Covid-19: collective student autoethnography. Postdigital Science and Education, 2, 968-988. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42438-020-00128-1
  • Reyes-Olavarría, D., Latorre-Román, P.A., Guzmán-Guzmán, I.P., Jerez-Mayorga, DCaamaño-Navarrete, F., Delgado-Floody, P. (2020). Positive and negative changes in food habits, physical activity patterns, and weight status during COVID-19 confinement: Associated factors in the chilean population. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(15), 5431. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155431 Robinson, E., Boyland, E., Chisholm, A., Harrold, J., Maloney, N.G., Marty, L., Mead, B.R., Noonan, R., Hard-man, C.A. (2021). Obesity, eating behavior and physical activity during COVID-19 lockdown: A study of UK adults. Appetite, 156, 104853. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2020.104853 Türk Tabipler Birliği (2020). COVID-19 pandemisi iki aylık değerlendirme raporu. https://www.ttb.org.tr/userfiles/files/covid19-rapor.pdf (accessed 06.05.2021). Van Strien, T. (2018). Causes of emotional eating and matched treatment of obesity. Current Diabetes Reports, 18(6), 35. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11892-018-1000-x World Health Organization (WHO) (2020). Archived: WHO timeline - COVID-19. https://www.who.int/news-room/detail/27-04-2020-who-timeline---covid-19 (accessed 18.05.2021).
  • World Health Organization (WHO) (2021a). Q&A on coronaviruses (COVID-19). https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel- coronavirus-2019/question-and-answers-hub/q-a-detail/q-a-coronaviruses (accessed 14.05.2021).
  • World Health Organization (WHO) (2021b). Body mass index – BMI. https://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/disease-prevention/nutrition/a-healthy-lifestyle/body-mass-index-bmi (accessed 25.05.2021).

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Tıp
Bölüm Research Articles
Yazarlar

Feride AYYILDIZ> (Sorumlu Yazar)
Gazi University Faculty of Health Sciences Department of Nutrition and Dietetics
0000-0003-2828-3850
Türkiye


Merve Şeyda KARAÇİL ERMUMCU>
Akdeniz University Faculty of Health Sciences Department of Nutrition and Dietetics
0000-0002-2023-8433
Türkiye

Teşekkür Thank you to all participants in our study.
Yayımlanma Tarihi 1 Nisan 2022
Başvuru Tarihi 5 Haziran 2021
Kabul Tarihi 23 Kasım 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 8, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { jfhs948247, journal = {Food and Health}, eissn = {2602-2834}, address = {Vidin Caddesi No:28 D:4 Kocamustafapaşa 34107 Fatih İstanbul}, publisher = {Özkan ÖZDEN}, year = {2022}, volume = {8}, number = {2}, pages = {118 - 126}, doi = {10.3153/FH22012}, title = {COVID-19 phobia, mindful eating, eating habits and body weight change among university students during pandemic: A pilot study}, key = {cite}, author = {Ayyıldız, Feride and Karaçil Ermumcu, Merve Şeyda} }
APA Ayyıldız, F. & Karaçil Ermumcu, M. Ş. (2022). COVID-19 phobia, mindful eating, eating habits and body weight change among university students during pandemic: A pilot study . Food and Health , 8 (2) , 118-126 . DOI: 10.3153/FH22012
MLA Ayyıldız, F. , Karaçil Ermumcu, M. Ş. "COVID-19 phobia, mindful eating, eating habits and body weight change among university students during pandemic: A pilot study" . Food and Health 8 (2022 ): 118-126 <http://jfhs.scientificwebjournals.com/tr/pub/issue/68312/948247>
Chicago Ayyıldız, F. , Karaçil Ermumcu, M. Ş. "COVID-19 phobia, mindful eating, eating habits and body weight change among university students during pandemic: A pilot study". Food and Health 8 (2022 ): 118-126
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - COVID-19 phobia, mindful eating, eating habits and body weight change among university students during pandemic: A pilot study AU - Feride Ayyıldız , Merve Şeyda Karaçil Ermumcu Y1 - 2022 PY - 2022 N1 - doi: 10.3153/FH22012 DO - 10.3153/FH22012 T2 - Food and Health JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 118 EP - 126 VL - 8 IS - 2 SN - -2602-2834 M3 - doi: 10.3153/FH22012 UR - https://doi.org/10.3153/FH22012 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Food and Health COVID-19 phobia, mindful eating, eating habits and body weight change among university students during pandemic: A pilot study %A Feride Ayyıldız , Merve Şeyda Karaçil Ermumcu %T COVID-19 phobia, mindful eating, eating habits and body weight change among university students during pandemic: A pilot study %D 2022 %J Food and Health %P -2602-2834 %V 8 %N 2 %R doi: 10.3153/FH22012 %U 10.3153/FH22012
ISNAD Ayyıldız, Feride , Karaçil Ermumcu, Merve Şeyda . "COVID-19 phobia, mindful eating, eating habits and body weight change among university students during pandemic: A pilot study". Food and Health 8 / 2 (Nisan 2022): 118-126 . https://doi.org/10.3153/FH22012
AMA Ayyıldız F. , Karaçil Ermumcu M. Ş. COVID-19 phobia, mindful eating, eating habits and body weight change among university students during pandemic: A pilot study. Food Health. 2022; 8(2): 118-126.
Vancouver Ayyıldız F. , Karaçil Ermumcu M. Ş. COVID-19 phobia, mindful eating, eating habits and body weight change among university students during pandemic: A pilot study. Food and Health. 2022; 8(2): 118-126.
IEEE F. Ayyıldız ve M. Ş. Karaçil Ermumcu , "COVID-19 phobia, mindful eating, eating habits and body weight change among university students during pandemic: A pilot study", Food and Health, c. 8, sayı. 2, ss. 118-126, Nis. 2022, doi:10.3153/FH22012

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