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Incidence and contamination level of Clostridium perfringens in meat and meat products sold in Sakarya province of Turkey

Yıl 2021, Cilt 7, Sayı 3, 172 - 178, 01.07.2021
https://doi.org/10.3153/FH21018

Öz

Totally 101 meat and meat product samples obtained from local markets and restaurants were analyzed for incidence and contamination level of Clostridium perfringens. The typical colonies grown anaerobically on Tryptose Sulfite Cycloserine Agar supplemented with 4-Methyliumbelliferyl (MUP) were confirmed by biochemical tests. Forty-eight of the samples (47.5%) were contaminated with C. perfringens. The highest incidence of the pathogen was determined in uncooked meatball samples (72.2%) followed by ground beef samples (61.3%). The incidence of C. perfringens in chicken meat, cooked meat döner, cooked chicken döner and emulsified meat product samples were 33.3, 33.3, 28.6 and 16.7%, respectively. Thirteen out of 101 samples (12.9%) yielded typical colonies on TSC-MUP Agar, but could not be confirmed as C. perfringens. Average contamination levels in sample groups ranged from 8.3 to 1.5×102 cfu/g, with the highest ground beef and the lowest chicken meat.

Kaynakça

  • Clostridium perfringens by using chromogenic and fluorogenic substrates. Applied Environmental Microbiology, 67(9), 4382-4384. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.67.9.4382-4384.2001
  • Andersson, A., Ronner, U., Granum, P.E. (1995). What problems does the food industry have with the spore-forming pathogens Bacillus cereus and Clostridium perfringens? International Journal of Food Microbiology, 28, 145-155. https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-1605(95)00053-4
  • Anonymous (1999). Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs-Horizontal method for the enumeration of Clostridium perfringens. Colonies count technique (ISO 7937: 1997 Modified). European Standard (EN 13401).
  • Anonymous (2011). Türk Gıda Kodeksi Mikrobiyolojik Kriterler Yönetmeliği Retrieved from https://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2011/12/20111229M3-6.htm (Accessed 01.06.2020).
  • Apaydin, G., Ceylan, Z.G., Kaya, M. (2003). Değişik firmalara ait salamların bazı mikrobiyolojik ve kimyasal özellikleri. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Science, 27, 1299-1303.
  • Araujo, M., Sueiro, R.A., Gómez, M.J., Garrido, M.J. (2001). Evaluation of fluorogenic TSC agar for recovering Clostridium perfringens in groundwater samples. Water Science and Technology, 43(12), 201-204. https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2001.0738
  • Başkaya, R., Karaca, T., Sevinç, İ., Çakmak, Ö., Yildiz, A., Yörük, M. (2004). İstanbul'da Satışa Sunulan Hazır Kıymaların Histolojik, Mikrobiyolojik ve Serolojik Kalitesi. Yüzüncü Yıl Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi, 15(1), 41-46.
  • Bostan, K., Yılmaz, F., Muratoğlu, K., Aydın, A. (2011). Pişmiş döner kebaplarda mikrobiyolojik kalite ve mikrobiyel gelişim üzerine bir araştırma. Kafkas Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi, 17(5), 781-786. https://doi.org/10.9775/kvfd.2011.4438
  • Brown, K.L. (2000). Control of bacterial spores. British Medical Bulletin, 56 (1), 158-171. https://doi.org/10.1258/0007142001902860 Brynestad, S., Granum, P.E. (2002). Clostridium perfringens and foodborne infections. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 74(3), 195-202. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1605(01)00680-8
  • Byrne, B., Dunne, G., Bolton, D.J. (2006). Thermal inactivation of Bacillus cereus and Clostridium perfringens vegetative cells and spores in pork luncheon roll. Food Microbiology, 23(8), 803-808. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fm.2006.02.002
  • Çakmak, Ö., Ormancı, F.S.B., Tayfur, M., Erol, İ. (2006). Presence and contamination level of Clostridium perfringens in raw frozen ground poultry and poultry burgers. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, 30(1), 101-105.
  • De Boer, E., Spiegelenberg, W.M., Janssen, F.W. (1985). Microbiology of spices and herbs. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, 51(4), 435-438. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02275058
  • EFSA-ECDC (European Food Safety Authority-European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control), (2015). The European Union summary report on trends and sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents, and food-borne outbreaks in 2014. EFSA Journal, 13(4329), 191. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2015.4329
  • Elmalı, M., Ulukanlı, Z., Yaman, H. (2005). Microbiological quality of emulsified type meat products (salami-frankfurter sausage) marketed in Kars. Journal of Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Erciyes University, 2(1), 15-21.
  • Fischer, M., Zhu, S., de Ree, E. (2012). Culture media for the detection and enumeration of clostridia in food. In: Handbook of Culture Media for Food and Water Microbiology, J.E.L Corry, G.D.W. Curtis, R.M. Baird (Eds.), Royal Society of Chemistry Publishing, p. 66-89. https://doi.org/10.1039/9781847551450-00066
  • Garcia, S., Heredia, N. (2011). Clostridium perfringens: a dynamic foodborne pathogen. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 4(4), 624-630. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11947-009-0182-2
  • García, S., Vidal, J.E., Heredia, N., Juneja, V.K. (2019). Clostridium perfringens. In: Food Microbiology: Fundamentals And Frontiers, Michael P. Doyle, Francisco Diez-Gonzalez, Colin Hill (Editors), 5th Edition, ASM Books, pp. 513-540. https://doi.org/10.1128/9781555819972.ch19
  • Guran, H.S., Oksuztepe, G. (2013). Detection and typing of Clostridium perfringens from retail chicken meat parts. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 57(1), 77-82. https://doi.org/10.1111/lam.12088
  • Guran, H.S., Vural, A., Erkan, M.E. (2014). The prevalence and molecular typing of Clostridium perfringens in ground beef and sheep meats. Journal für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit, 9(2), 121-128. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00003-014-0866-z
  • Immerseel, F.V., Buck, J.D., Pasmans, F., Huyghebaert, G., Haesebrouck, F., Ducatelle, R. (2004). Clostridium perfringens in poultry: an emerging threat for animal and public health. Avian pathology, 33(6), 537-549. https://doi.org/10.1080/03079450400013162 Jaloustre, S., Guillier, L., Poumeyrol, G., Morelli, E., Delignette-Muller, M.L. (2013). Efficiency of a reheating step to inactivate Clostridium perfringens vegetative cells: How to measure it? Food Control, 29(2), 422-428. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2012.07.003
  • Juneja, V.K., Novak, J.S., Labbe, R.J. (2010). Clostridium perfringens. In: Pathogens and Toxins in Foods: Challenges and Interventions, V.K. Juneja, J.N. Sofos (Eds.), ASM Press, Washington DC, USA. p. 53-70. https://doi.org/10.1128/9781555815936.ch4
  • Kamber, U., Gokce, H.I., Elmalı, M. (2007). Clostridium perfringens and its toxins in minced meat from Kars, Turkey. Food Additives and Contaminants, 24(7), 673-678. https://doi.org/10.1080/02652030601186129
  • Kouassi, K.A., Dadie, A.T., N'Guessan, K.F., Dje, K.M., Loukou, Y.G. (2014). Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium difficile in cooked beef sold in Cote d'Ivoire and their antimicrobial susceptibility. Anaerobe, 28, 90-94. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anaerobe.2014.05.012
  • Labbe, R.G., Juneja, V.K. (2017). Clostridium perfringens. In Foodborne Diseases (pp. 235-242). Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-385007-2.00010-3
  • McClane, B.A., Robertson, S.L., Li, J. (2012). Clostridium perfringens. In: Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, M.P. Doyle, R.L. Buchanan (Eds.), American Society for Microbiology Press, p.465-489. https://doi.org/10.1128/9781555818463.ch18
  • Mead, P.S., Slutsker, L., Dietz, V., McCaig, L.F., Bresee, J.S., Shapiro, C., Griffin, P.M., Tauxe, R.V. (1999). Food-related illness and death in the United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5, 607-625. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid0505.990502
  • Mellou, K., Kyritsi, M., Chrysostomou, A., Sideroglou, T., Georgakopoulou, T., Hadjichristodoulou, C. (2019). Clostridium perfringens foodborne outbreak during an athletic event in Northern Greece, June 2019. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(20), 3967. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16203967
  • Pafumi, J. (1986). Assessment of the microbiological quality of spices and herbs. Journal of Food Protection, 49(12), 958-963. https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-49.12.958
  • Rhodehamel, J., Harmon, S. (1998). Clostridium perfringens, Bacteriological Analytical Manual, 8th Edition, Revision A, Chapter 16.
  • Shaltout, F.A., Osman, I.M., Kamel, E.A., Abd-Alla, A.K. (2017). Isolation of Clostridium perfringens from Meat Samples Obtained from the University Students’ Hostel. EC Nutrition, 9(3), 142-150.
  • Taormina, P.J., Bartholomew, G.W., Dorsa, W.J. (2003). Incidence of Clostridium perfringens in commercially produced cured raw meat product mixtures and behavior in cooked products during chilling and refrigerated storage. Journal of Food Protection, 66(1), 72-81. https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-66.1.72
  • Vazgecer, B., Ulu, H., Oztan, A. (2004). Microbiological and chemical qualities of chicken döner kebab retailed on the Turkish restaurants. Food Control, 15(4), 261-264. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0956-7135(03)00065-3
  • Wen, Q., McClane, B.A. (2004). Detection of enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens type A isolates in American retail foods. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 70(5), 2685-2691. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.70.5.2685-2691.2004
  • Yıldırım, Z., Ceylan, Ş., Öncül, N. (2015). Tokat piyasasında satışa sunulan tavuk etlerinin mikrobiyolojik kalitesinin belirlenmesi. Akademik Gıda, 13(4), 304-316.

Yıl 2021, Cilt 7, Sayı 3, 172 - 178, 01.07.2021
https://doi.org/10.3153/FH21018

Öz

Kaynakça

  • Clostridium perfringens by using chromogenic and fluorogenic substrates. Applied Environmental Microbiology, 67(9), 4382-4384. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.67.9.4382-4384.2001
  • Andersson, A., Ronner, U., Granum, P.E. (1995). What problems does the food industry have with the spore-forming pathogens Bacillus cereus and Clostridium perfringens? International Journal of Food Microbiology, 28, 145-155. https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-1605(95)00053-4
  • Anonymous (1999). Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs-Horizontal method for the enumeration of Clostridium perfringens. Colonies count technique (ISO 7937: 1997 Modified). European Standard (EN 13401).
  • Anonymous (2011). Türk Gıda Kodeksi Mikrobiyolojik Kriterler Yönetmeliği Retrieved from https://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2011/12/20111229M3-6.htm (Accessed 01.06.2020).
  • Apaydin, G., Ceylan, Z.G., Kaya, M. (2003). Değişik firmalara ait salamların bazı mikrobiyolojik ve kimyasal özellikleri. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Science, 27, 1299-1303.
  • Araujo, M., Sueiro, R.A., Gómez, M.J., Garrido, M.J. (2001). Evaluation of fluorogenic TSC agar for recovering Clostridium perfringens in groundwater samples. Water Science and Technology, 43(12), 201-204. https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2001.0738
  • Başkaya, R., Karaca, T., Sevinç, İ., Çakmak, Ö., Yildiz, A., Yörük, M. (2004). İstanbul'da Satışa Sunulan Hazır Kıymaların Histolojik, Mikrobiyolojik ve Serolojik Kalitesi. Yüzüncü Yıl Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi, 15(1), 41-46.
  • Bostan, K., Yılmaz, F., Muratoğlu, K., Aydın, A. (2011). Pişmiş döner kebaplarda mikrobiyolojik kalite ve mikrobiyel gelişim üzerine bir araştırma. Kafkas Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi, 17(5), 781-786. https://doi.org/10.9775/kvfd.2011.4438
  • Brown, K.L. (2000). Control of bacterial spores. British Medical Bulletin, 56 (1), 158-171. https://doi.org/10.1258/0007142001902860 Brynestad, S., Granum, P.E. (2002). Clostridium perfringens and foodborne infections. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 74(3), 195-202. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1605(01)00680-8
  • Byrne, B., Dunne, G., Bolton, D.J. (2006). Thermal inactivation of Bacillus cereus and Clostridium perfringens vegetative cells and spores in pork luncheon roll. Food Microbiology, 23(8), 803-808. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fm.2006.02.002
  • Çakmak, Ö., Ormancı, F.S.B., Tayfur, M., Erol, İ. (2006). Presence and contamination level of Clostridium perfringens in raw frozen ground poultry and poultry burgers. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, 30(1), 101-105.
  • De Boer, E., Spiegelenberg, W.M., Janssen, F.W. (1985). Microbiology of spices and herbs. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, 51(4), 435-438. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02275058
  • EFSA-ECDC (European Food Safety Authority-European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control), (2015). The European Union summary report on trends and sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents, and food-borne outbreaks in 2014. EFSA Journal, 13(4329), 191. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2015.4329
  • Elmalı, M., Ulukanlı, Z., Yaman, H. (2005). Microbiological quality of emulsified type meat products (salami-frankfurter sausage) marketed in Kars. Journal of Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Erciyes University, 2(1), 15-21.
  • Fischer, M., Zhu, S., de Ree, E. (2012). Culture media for the detection and enumeration of clostridia in food. In: Handbook of Culture Media for Food and Water Microbiology, J.E.L Corry, G.D.W. Curtis, R.M. Baird (Eds.), Royal Society of Chemistry Publishing, p. 66-89. https://doi.org/10.1039/9781847551450-00066
  • Garcia, S., Heredia, N. (2011). Clostridium perfringens: a dynamic foodborne pathogen. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 4(4), 624-630. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11947-009-0182-2
  • García, S., Vidal, J.E., Heredia, N., Juneja, V.K. (2019). Clostridium perfringens. In: Food Microbiology: Fundamentals And Frontiers, Michael P. Doyle, Francisco Diez-Gonzalez, Colin Hill (Editors), 5th Edition, ASM Books, pp. 513-540. https://doi.org/10.1128/9781555819972.ch19
  • Guran, H.S., Oksuztepe, G. (2013). Detection and typing of Clostridium perfringens from retail chicken meat parts. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 57(1), 77-82. https://doi.org/10.1111/lam.12088
  • Guran, H.S., Vural, A., Erkan, M.E. (2014). The prevalence and molecular typing of Clostridium perfringens in ground beef and sheep meats. Journal für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit, 9(2), 121-128. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00003-014-0866-z
  • Immerseel, F.V., Buck, J.D., Pasmans, F., Huyghebaert, G., Haesebrouck, F., Ducatelle, R. (2004). Clostridium perfringens in poultry: an emerging threat for animal and public health. Avian pathology, 33(6), 537-549. https://doi.org/10.1080/03079450400013162 Jaloustre, S., Guillier, L., Poumeyrol, G., Morelli, E., Delignette-Muller, M.L. (2013). Efficiency of a reheating step to inactivate Clostridium perfringens vegetative cells: How to measure it? Food Control, 29(2), 422-428. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2012.07.003
  • Juneja, V.K., Novak, J.S., Labbe, R.J. (2010). Clostridium perfringens. In: Pathogens and Toxins in Foods: Challenges and Interventions, V.K. Juneja, J.N. Sofos (Eds.), ASM Press, Washington DC, USA. p. 53-70. https://doi.org/10.1128/9781555815936.ch4
  • Kamber, U., Gokce, H.I., Elmalı, M. (2007). Clostridium perfringens and its toxins in minced meat from Kars, Turkey. Food Additives and Contaminants, 24(7), 673-678. https://doi.org/10.1080/02652030601186129
  • Kouassi, K.A., Dadie, A.T., N'Guessan, K.F., Dje, K.M., Loukou, Y.G. (2014). Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium difficile in cooked beef sold in Cote d'Ivoire and their antimicrobial susceptibility. Anaerobe, 28, 90-94. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anaerobe.2014.05.012
  • Labbe, R.G., Juneja, V.K. (2017). Clostridium perfringens. In Foodborne Diseases (pp. 235-242). Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-385007-2.00010-3
  • McClane, B.A., Robertson, S.L., Li, J. (2012). Clostridium perfringens. In: Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, M.P. Doyle, R.L. Buchanan (Eds.), American Society for Microbiology Press, p.465-489. https://doi.org/10.1128/9781555818463.ch18
  • Mead, P.S., Slutsker, L., Dietz, V., McCaig, L.F., Bresee, J.S., Shapiro, C., Griffin, P.M., Tauxe, R.V. (1999). Food-related illness and death in the United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5, 607-625. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid0505.990502
  • Mellou, K., Kyritsi, M., Chrysostomou, A., Sideroglou, T., Georgakopoulou, T., Hadjichristodoulou, C. (2019). Clostridium perfringens foodborne outbreak during an athletic event in Northern Greece, June 2019. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(20), 3967. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16203967
  • Pafumi, J. (1986). Assessment of the microbiological quality of spices and herbs. Journal of Food Protection, 49(12), 958-963. https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-49.12.958
  • Rhodehamel, J., Harmon, S. (1998). Clostridium perfringens, Bacteriological Analytical Manual, 8th Edition, Revision A, Chapter 16.
  • Shaltout, F.A., Osman, I.M., Kamel, E.A., Abd-Alla, A.K. (2017). Isolation of Clostridium perfringens from Meat Samples Obtained from the University Students’ Hostel. EC Nutrition, 9(3), 142-150.
  • Taormina, P.J., Bartholomew, G.W., Dorsa, W.J. (2003). Incidence of Clostridium perfringens in commercially produced cured raw meat product mixtures and behavior in cooked products during chilling and refrigerated storage. Journal of Food Protection, 66(1), 72-81. https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-66.1.72
  • Vazgecer, B., Ulu, H., Oztan, A. (2004). Microbiological and chemical qualities of chicken döner kebab retailed on the Turkish restaurants. Food Control, 15(4), 261-264. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0956-7135(03)00065-3
  • Wen, Q., McClane, B.A. (2004). Detection of enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens type A isolates in American retail foods. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 70(5), 2685-2691. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.70.5.2685-2691.2004
  • Yıldırım, Z., Ceylan, Ş., Öncül, N. (2015). Tokat piyasasında satışa sunulan tavuk etlerinin mikrobiyolojik kalitesinin belirlenmesi. Akademik Gıda, 13(4), 304-316.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Gıda Bilimi ve Teknolojisi
Bölüm Research Articles
Yazarlar

Serap COŞANSU AKDEMİR (Sorumlu Yazar)
Sakarya Üniversitesi
0000-0003-2875-1335
Türkiye


Şeyma ERSÖZ Bu kişi benim
Sakarya Üniversitesi
0000-0001-7481-1170
Türkiye

Destekleyen Kurum Commission of Scientific Research Projects of Sakarya University
Proje Numarası BAP-2012-01-16-009
Teşekkür -
Yayımlanma Tarihi 1 Temmuz 2021
Başvuru Tarihi 12 Haziran 2020
Kabul Tarihi 25 Aralık 2020
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 7, Sayı 3

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { jfhs751576, journal = {Food and Health}, issn = {}, eissn = {2602-2834}, address = {Vidin Caddesi No:28 D:4 Kocamustafapaşa 34107 Fatih İstanbul}, publisher = {Özkan ÖZDEN}, year = {2021}, volume = {7}, pages = {172 - 178}, doi = {10.3153/FH21018}, title = {Incidence and contamination level of Clostridium perfringens in meat and meat products sold in Sakarya province of Turkey}, key = {cite}, author = {Coşansu Akdemir, Serap and Ersöz, Şeyma} }
APA Coşansu Akdemir, S. & Ersöz, Ş. (2021). Incidence and contamination level of Clostridium perfringens in meat and meat products sold in Sakarya province of Turkey . Food and Health , 7 (3) , 172-178 . DOI: 10.3153/FH21018
MLA Coşansu Akdemir, S. , Ersöz, Ş. "Incidence and contamination level of Clostridium perfringens in meat and meat products sold in Sakarya province of Turkey" . Food and Health 7 (2021 ): 172-178 <http://jfhs.scientificwebjournals.com/tr/pub/issue/61021/751576>
Chicago Coşansu Akdemir, S. , Ersöz, Ş. "Incidence and contamination level of Clostridium perfringens in meat and meat products sold in Sakarya province of Turkey". Food and Health 7 (2021 ): 172-178
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Incidence and contamination level of Clostridium perfringens in meat and meat products sold in Sakarya province of Turkey AU - Serap Coşansu Akdemir , Şeyma Ersöz Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.3153/FH21018 DO - 10.3153/FH21018 T2 - Food and Health JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 172 EP - 178 VL - 7 IS - 3 SN - -2602-2834 M3 - doi: 10.3153/FH21018 UR - https://doi.org/10.3153/FH21018 Y2 - 2020 ER -
EndNote %0 Food and Health Incidence and contamination level of Clostridium perfringens in meat and meat products sold in Sakarya province of Turkey %A Serap Coşansu Akdemir , Şeyma Ersöz %T Incidence and contamination level of Clostridium perfringens in meat and meat products sold in Sakarya province of Turkey %D 2021 %J Food and Health %P -2602-2834 %V 7 %N 3 %R doi: 10.3153/FH21018 %U 10.3153/FH21018
ISNAD Coşansu Akdemir, Serap , Ersöz, Şeyma . "Incidence and contamination level of Clostridium perfringens in meat and meat products sold in Sakarya province of Turkey". Food and Health 7 / 3 (Temmuz 2021): 172-178 . https://doi.org/10.3153/FH21018
AMA Coşansu Akdemir S. , Ersöz Ş. Incidence and contamination level of Clostridium perfringens in meat and meat products sold in Sakarya province of Turkey. Food Health. 2021; 7(3): 172-178.
Vancouver Coşansu Akdemir S. , Ersöz Ş. Incidence and contamination level of Clostridium perfringens in meat and meat products sold in Sakarya province of Turkey. Food and Health. 2021; 7(3): 172-178.
IEEE S. Coşansu Akdemir ve Ş. Ersöz , "Incidence and contamination level of Clostridium perfringens in meat and meat products sold in Sakarya province of Turkey", Food and Health, c. 7, sayı. 3, ss. 172-178, Tem. 2021, doi:10.3153/FH21018

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