Research Article
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Investigation of acrylamide hazard in cocoa cakes in terms of food safety

Year 2023, Volume: 9 Issue: 4, 331 - 340, 08.10.2023
https://doi.org/10.3153/FH23030

Abstract

Acrylamide is a toxic Maillard reaction product that occurs primarily in heat-treated products and has proven adverse effects on human health. Since bakery products are produced by applying heat treatment, they especially pose a risk regarding acrylamide formation. For public health, it is essential to determine the amount of acrylamide in bakery products that are widely consumed in the daily diet. The study aims to examine the amount of acrylamide in some cocoa cakes offered for sale in our country. The cocoa cakes, which were sold as packaged and unpackaged in chain markets and patisseries in Aydın province, were examined regarding acrylamide contents. Some significant compositional properties of the samples were also determined. Chromatographic analysis of acrylamide, after extraction, was carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography. The study determined that the acrylamide amounts of the cocoa cake samples varied between 34.36-311.95 µg/kg. No correlation was found between the colour values of the cocoa cake samples and their acrylamide content (p>0.05). Various scientific societies and legal organisations conduct risk assessment studies to examine the health effects of acrylamide exposure. As a result of these evaluations, risky foods are determined for some general or particular groups in society. The most appropriate production models are created for these foods, and exposure is minimised by limiting the levels of toxic substances. The study results will be a guide for reducing acrylamide exposure in cocoa cakes.

Supporting Institution

This study was supported within the scope of TÜBİTAK 2209-A University Students Research Projects Support Program.

Thanks

We would like to thank Aydın Adnan Menderes University Agricultural Biotechnology and Food Safety (TARBİYOMER) for providing analysis facilities.

References

  • Ashoor, S. H., Zent, J. B. (1984). Maillard browning of common amino acids and sugars. Journal of Food Science, 49(4), 1206-1207. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1984.tb10432.x
  • AOAC. (2012). Official methods of analysis (18th ed.), AOAC International, Gaithersburg, 806-842.
  • Baltacıoğlu, C., Uyar, M. (2017). Kabak (Cucubita pepo L.) tozunun kek üretiminde potansiyel kullanımı ve kek kalite parametrelerine etkisi. Akademik Gıda, 15(3), 274-280. https://doi.org/10.24323/akademik-gida.345267
  • Biedermann, M. (2002). Experiments on acrylamide formation and possibilities to decrease the potential of acrylamide formation in potatoes. Mitteilungen aus Lebensmitteluntersuchung und Hygiene, 93, 668-687.
  • Boon, P. E., de Mul, A., van der Voet, H., van Donkersgoed, G., Brette, M., van Klaveren, J. D. (2005). Calculations of dietary exposure to acrylamide. Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, 580(1-2), 143-155. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mrgentox.2004.10.014
  • Curtis, T. Y., Powers, S. J., Balagiannis, D., Elmore, J. S., Mottram, D. S., Parry, M. A.,..., Halford, N. G. (2010). Free amino acids and sugars in ryegrain: implications for acrylamide formation. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 58(3), 1959-1969. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf903577b
  • Elmore, J. S., Koutsidis, G., Dodson, A. T., Mottram, D. S., Wedzicha, B. L. (2005). Measurement of acrylamide and its precursors in potato, wheat, andrye model systems. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53(4), 1286-1293. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf048557b
  • Eriksson, S. (2005). Acrylamide in food products: Identification, formation and analytical methodology, Doctoral dissertation, Institutionen för miljökemi, Stockholms universitet, Sweden.
  • Ezeji, T.C., Groberg, M., Qureshi, N., Blaschek, H.P. (2003). Continuous production of butanol from starch-based packing peanuts. In Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals, 375-382, Humana Press, Totowa, NJ. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4612-0057-4_30
  • Gertz, C., Klostermann, S. (2002). Analysis of acrylamide and mechanisms of its formation in deep –fried products. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 104(11), 762-771. https://doi.org/10.1002/1438-9312(200211)104:11<762::AID-EJLT762>3.0.CO;2-R
  • Gertz, C. (2004). Optimising the baking and frying process using oil-improving agents. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 106(11), 736-745. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.200401015
  • Hamlet, C.G., Sadd, P.A., Liang, L. (2008). Correlations between the amounts of free asparagines and saccharides present in commercial cereal flours in the United Kingdom and the generation of acrylamide during cooking. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56(15), 6145-6153. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf703743g
  • Hilbig, A., Freidank, N., Kersting, M., Wilhelm, M., Wittsiepe, J. (2004). Estimation of the dietary intake of acrylamide by German infants, children and adolescents as calculated from dietary records and available data on acrylamide levels in food groups. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 207(5), 463-471. https://doi.org/10.1078/1438-4639-00317
  • Keramat, J., LeBail, A., Prost, C., Jafari, M. (2011). Acrylamide in baking products: a review article. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 4(4), 530-543. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11947-010-0495-1
  • Krishnakumar, T., Visvanathan, R. (2014). Acrylamide in food products: a review. Journal of Food Processing & Technology, 5(7), 1.
  • Marková, L., Ciesarová, Z., Kukurová, K., Zieliński, H., Przygodzka, M., Bednáriková, A., Šimko, P. (2012). Influence of various spices on acrylamide content in buckwheat ginger cakes. Chemical Papers, 66(10), 949-954. https://doi.org/10.2478/s11696-012-0218-3
  • Matthäus, B., Haase, N.U., Vosmann, K. (2004). Factors affecting the concentration of acrylamide during deep fat frying of potatoes. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 106(11), 793-801. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.200400992
  • Mesias, M., Delgado-Andrade, C., Morales, F.J. (2022). An updated view of acrylamide in cereal products. Current Opinion in Food Science, 46, 100847. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cofs.2022.100847
  • Mojska, H., Gielecińska, I., Szponar, L., Ołtarzewski, M. (2010). Estimation of the dietary acrylamide exposure of the Polish population. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 48(8-9), 2090-2096. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2010.05.009
  • Moreno, R.B. (2019). Nutritional composition and sensory quality evaluation of Philippine Choco Chiffon Cake. Journal of Tourism, Hospitality & Culinary Arts (JTHCA), 7(3), 1-10.
  • Mousa, R.M.A. (2021). Simultaneous inhibition of acrylamide formation and fat oxidation in quinoa cakes using gum Arabic supplementation coupled with fat reduction. International Journal of Food Properties, 24(1), 749-763. https://doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2021.1924779
  • Nematollahi, A., Kamankesh, M., Hosseini, H., Ghasemi, J., Hosseini-Esfahani, F., Mohammadi, A., Mousavi Khaneghah, A. (2020). Acrylamide content of collected food products from Tehran’s market: A risk assessment study. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 27, 30558-30570. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09323-w
  • Ölmez, H., Tuncay, F., Özcan, N., Demirel, S. (2008). A survey of acrylamide levels in foods from the Turkish market. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 21(7), 564-568. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2008.04.011
  • Pacetti, D., Gil, E., Frega, N. G., Álvarez, L., Dueñas, P., Garzón, A., Lucci, P. (2015). Acrylamide levels in selected Colombian foods. Food Additives & Contaminants: Part B, 8(2), 99-105. https://doi.org/10.1080/19393210.2014.995236
  • Pedreschi, F., Kaack, K., Granby, K. (2006). Acrylamide content and color development in fried potato strips. Food Research International, 39(1), 40-46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2005.06.001
  • Razia, S., Bertrand, M., Klaus, V., Meinolf, G.L. (2016). Investigation of acrylamide levels in branded biscuits, cakes and potato chips commonly consumed in Pakistan. International Food Research Journal, 23(5), 2187-2192.
  • Rosa, C.S., Tessele, K., Prestes, R.C., Silveira, M., Franco, F. (2015). Effect of substituting of cocoa powder forcarob flour in cakes made with soy and banana flours. International Food Research Journal, 22(5), 2111-2118
  • Rufian-Henares, J.A., Arribas-Lorenzo, G., Morales, F.J. (2007). Acrylamide content of selected Spanish foods: survey of biscuits and bread derivatives. Food Additives and Contaminants, 24(4), 343-350. https://doi.org/10.1080/02652030601101169
  • Sarion, C., Codină, G.G., Dabija, A. (2021). Acrylamide in bakery products: A review on health risks, legal regulations and strategies to reduce its formation. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Apr 19; 18(8), 4332. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18084332
  • Şenyuva, H.Z., Gökmen, V. (2005). Survey of acrylamide in Turkish foods by an in-house validated LC-MS method. Food Additives and Contaminants, 22(3), 204-209. https://doi.org/10.1080/02652030512331344178
  • Shi, Z., Zhang, H., Zhao, X. (2009). Ultrasonic-assisted precolumn derivatization-HPLC determination of acrylamide formed in Radix Asparagi during heating process. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, 49(4), 1045-1047.
  • Stahl, L., Miller, K.B., Apgar, J., Sweigart, D.S., Stuart, D.A., McHale, N., ..., Hurst, W.J. (2009). Preservation of cocoa antioxidant activity, total polyphenols, flavan-3-ols, and procyanidin content in foods prepared with cocoa powder. Journal of Food Science, 74(6), 456-461. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2009.01226.x
  • Taubert, D., Harlfinger, S., Henkes, L., Berkels, R., Schömig, E. (2004). Influence of processing parameters on acrylamide formation during frying of potatoes. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 52(9), 2735-2739. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf035417d
  • Uçar, B. (2011). Pandispanya kek kalitesi üzerine yabani meyvelerin fonksiyonel etkileri, Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Erciyes Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Kayseri, Türkiye.
  • Vinci, R.M., Mestdagh, F., De Meulenaer, B. (2012). Acrylamide formation in fried potato products–Present and future, a critical review on mitigation strategies. Food Chemistry, 133(4), 1138-1154. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.08.001
  • WHO, (2002). FAO/WHO Consultations on the health implications of acrylamide in foods. Summary report of a meeting held in Genova. 25-27 June 2002: summary report. World Health Organization. https://iris.who.int/handle/10665/67372

Gıda güvenliği açısından kakaolu keklerde akrilamid tehlikesinin araştırılması

Year 2023, Volume: 9 Issue: 4, 331 - 340, 08.10.2023
https://doi.org/10.3153/FH23030

Abstract

Akrilamid, özellikle ısıl işlem uygulanan ürünlerde oluşan ve insan sağlığı üzerindeki olumsuz etkileri kanıtlanmış olan toksik bir Maillard reaksiyonu ürünüdür. Özellikle fırıncılık ürünleri ısıl işlem uygulanarak üretildiklerinden akrilamid oluşumu yönünden risk teşkil etmektedir. Günlük diyette yaygın olarak tüketilen fırıncılık ürünlerinde akrilamid miktarının tespit edilmesi toplum sağlığı açısından büyük önem taşımaktadır. Çalışmanın amacı ülkemiz piyasasında satışa sunulmuş olan bazı kakaolu keklerde akrilamid miktarının incelenmesidir. Çalışmada Aydın ilinde yer alan zincir marketlerde ve pastanelerde ambalajlı ve ambalajsız şekilde satışa sunulmuş olan kakaolu kekler akrilamid miktarları yönünden incelenmişlerdir. Örneklerin ayrıca bazı temel bileşim özellikleri belirlenmiştir. Akrilamid miktarının kromatografik analizi, ekstraksiyon işleminin ardından, yüksek performanslı sıvı kromatografisi ile gerçekleştirilmiştir. Çalışmada kakaolu kek örneklerinin akrilamid miktarlarının 34.36-311.95 µg/kg arasında değiştiği belirlenmiştir. Kakaolu kek örneklerinin renk değerleri ile akrilamid içerikleri arasında ise herhangi bir korelasyon tespit edilmemiştir (p>0.05). Genel olarak değerlendirildiğinde ise pastanelerden alınan ambalajsız kek örneklerinin marketlerde satışa sunulan paketli kakaolu keklere göre daha yüksek nemli, dış yüzeylerinin daha sarı renkte ve daha yüksek akrilamid değerlerinin olduğu saptanmıştır (p<0.05). Akrilamid maruziyetinin sağlık üzerine etkilerinin incelenmesi amacıyla çeşitli bilimsel topluluklar ve yasal kuruluşlar aracılığıyla risk değerlendirme çalışmaları yapılmaktadır. Bu değerlendirmeler sonucunda toplumda bulunan genel veya özel bazı gruplar için riskli gıdalar tespit edilmekte ve bu gıdalar için en uygun üretim modelleri oluşturulmakta ve toksik maddelerin düzeyleri için sınırlandırmalar getirilerek maruziyet minimuma indirilmeye çalışılmaktadır. Çalışma sonuçlarının kakaolu keklerde akrilamid maruziyetini azaltma konusunda yol gösterici olacağı düşünülmektedir.

Supporting Institution

Bu çalışma TÜBİTAK 2209-A Üniversite Öğrencileri Araştırma Projeleri Destekleme Programı kapsamında desteklenmiştir.

Thanks

Aydın Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi Tarımsal Biyoteknoloji ve Gıda Güvenliği (TARBİYOMER)’e analiz imkanlarını sağladığı için teşekkür ederiz.

References

  • Ashoor, S. H., Zent, J. B. (1984). Maillard browning of common amino acids and sugars. Journal of Food Science, 49(4), 1206-1207. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1984.tb10432.x
  • AOAC. (2012). Official methods of analysis (18th ed.), AOAC International, Gaithersburg, 806-842.
  • Baltacıoğlu, C., Uyar, M. (2017). Kabak (Cucubita pepo L.) tozunun kek üretiminde potansiyel kullanımı ve kek kalite parametrelerine etkisi. Akademik Gıda, 15(3), 274-280. https://doi.org/10.24323/akademik-gida.345267
  • Biedermann, M. (2002). Experiments on acrylamide formation and possibilities to decrease the potential of acrylamide formation in potatoes. Mitteilungen aus Lebensmitteluntersuchung und Hygiene, 93, 668-687.
  • Boon, P. E., de Mul, A., van der Voet, H., van Donkersgoed, G., Brette, M., van Klaveren, J. D. (2005). Calculations of dietary exposure to acrylamide. Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, 580(1-2), 143-155. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mrgentox.2004.10.014
  • Curtis, T. Y., Powers, S. J., Balagiannis, D., Elmore, J. S., Mottram, D. S., Parry, M. A.,..., Halford, N. G. (2010). Free amino acids and sugars in ryegrain: implications for acrylamide formation. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 58(3), 1959-1969. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf903577b
  • Elmore, J. S., Koutsidis, G., Dodson, A. T., Mottram, D. S., Wedzicha, B. L. (2005). Measurement of acrylamide and its precursors in potato, wheat, andrye model systems. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53(4), 1286-1293. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf048557b
  • Eriksson, S. (2005). Acrylamide in food products: Identification, formation and analytical methodology, Doctoral dissertation, Institutionen för miljökemi, Stockholms universitet, Sweden.
  • Ezeji, T.C., Groberg, M., Qureshi, N., Blaschek, H.P. (2003). Continuous production of butanol from starch-based packing peanuts. In Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals, 375-382, Humana Press, Totowa, NJ. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4612-0057-4_30
  • Gertz, C., Klostermann, S. (2002). Analysis of acrylamide and mechanisms of its formation in deep –fried products. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 104(11), 762-771. https://doi.org/10.1002/1438-9312(200211)104:11<762::AID-EJLT762>3.0.CO;2-R
  • Gertz, C. (2004). Optimising the baking and frying process using oil-improving agents. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 106(11), 736-745. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.200401015
  • Hamlet, C.G., Sadd, P.A., Liang, L. (2008). Correlations between the amounts of free asparagines and saccharides present in commercial cereal flours in the United Kingdom and the generation of acrylamide during cooking. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56(15), 6145-6153. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf703743g
  • Hilbig, A., Freidank, N., Kersting, M., Wilhelm, M., Wittsiepe, J. (2004). Estimation of the dietary intake of acrylamide by German infants, children and adolescents as calculated from dietary records and available data on acrylamide levels in food groups. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 207(5), 463-471. https://doi.org/10.1078/1438-4639-00317
  • Keramat, J., LeBail, A., Prost, C., Jafari, M. (2011). Acrylamide in baking products: a review article. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 4(4), 530-543. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11947-010-0495-1
  • Krishnakumar, T., Visvanathan, R. (2014). Acrylamide in food products: a review. Journal of Food Processing & Technology, 5(7), 1.
  • Marková, L., Ciesarová, Z., Kukurová, K., Zieliński, H., Przygodzka, M., Bednáriková, A., Šimko, P. (2012). Influence of various spices on acrylamide content in buckwheat ginger cakes. Chemical Papers, 66(10), 949-954. https://doi.org/10.2478/s11696-012-0218-3
  • Matthäus, B., Haase, N.U., Vosmann, K. (2004). Factors affecting the concentration of acrylamide during deep fat frying of potatoes. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 106(11), 793-801. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.200400992
  • Mesias, M., Delgado-Andrade, C., Morales, F.J. (2022). An updated view of acrylamide in cereal products. Current Opinion in Food Science, 46, 100847. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cofs.2022.100847
  • Mojska, H., Gielecińska, I., Szponar, L., Ołtarzewski, M. (2010). Estimation of the dietary acrylamide exposure of the Polish population. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 48(8-9), 2090-2096. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2010.05.009
  • Moreno, R.B. (2019). Nutritional composition and sensory quality evaluation of Philippine Choco Chiffon Cake. Journal of Tourism, Hospitality & Culinary Arts (JTHCA), 7(3), 1-10.
  • Mousa, R.M.A. (2021). Simultaneous inhibition of acrylamide formation and fat oxidation in quinoa cakes using gum Arabic supplementation coupled with fat reduction. International Journal of Food Properties, 24(1), 749-763. https://doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2021.1924779
  • Nematollahi, A., Kamankesh, M., Hosseini, H., Ghasemi, J., Hosseini-Esfahani, F., Mohammadi, A., Mousavi Khaneghah, A. (2020). Acrylamide content of collected food products from Tehran’s market: A risk assessment study. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 27, 30558-30570. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09323-w
  • Ölmez, H., Tuncay, F., Özcan, N., Demirel, S. (2008). A survey of acrylamide levels in foods from the Turkish market. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 21(7), 564-568. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2008.04.011
  • Pacetti, D., Gil, E., Frega, N. G., Álvarez, L., Dueñas, P., Garzón, A., Lucci, P. (2015). Acrylamide levels in selected Colombian foods. Food Additives & Contaminants: Part B, 8(2), 99-105. https://doi.org/10.1080/19393210.2014.995236
  • Pedreschi, F., Kaack, K., Granby, K. (2006). Acrylamide content and color development in fried potato strips. Food Research International, 39(1), 40-46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2005.06.001
  • Razia, S., Bertrand, M., Klaus, V., Meinolf, G.L. (2016). Investigation of acrylamide levels in branded biscuits, cakes and potato chips commonly consumed in Pakistan. International Food Research Journal, 23(5), 2187-2192.
  • Rosa, C.S., Tessele, K., Prestes, R.C., Silveira, M., Franco, F. (2015). Effect of substituting of cocoa powder forcarob flour in cakes made with soy and banana flours. International Food Research Journal, 22(5), 2111-2118
  • Rufian-Henares, J.A., Arribas-Lorenzo, G., Morales, F.J. (2007). Acrylamide content of selected Spanish foods: survey of biscuits and bread derivatives. Food Additives and Contaminants, 24(4), 343-350. https://doi.org/10.1080/02652030601101169
  • Sarion, C., Codină, G.G., Dabija, A. (2021). Acrylamide in bakery products: A review on health risks, legal regulations and strategies to reduce its formation. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Apr 19; 18(8), 4332. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18084332
  • Şenyuva, H.Z., Gökmen, V. (2005). Survey of acrylamide in Turkish foods by an in-house validated LC-MS method. Food Additives and Contaminants, 22(3), 204-209. https://doi.org/10.1080/02652030512331344178
  • Shi, Z., Zhang, H., Zhao, X. (2009). Ultrasonic-assisted precolumn derivatization-HPLC determination of acrylamide formed in Radix Asparagi during heating process. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, 49(4), 1045-1047.
  • Stahl, L., Miller, K.B., Apgar, J., Sweigart, D.S., Stuart, D.A., McHale, N., ..., Hurst, W.J. (2009). Preservation of cocoa antioxidant activity, total polyphenols, flavan-3-ols, and procyanidin content in foods prepared with cocoa powder. Journal of Food Science, 74(6), 456-461. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2009.01226.x
  • Taubert, D., Harlfinger, S., Henkes, L., Berkels, R., Schömig, E. (2004). Influence of processing parameters on acrylamide formation during frying of potatoes. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 52(9), 2735-2739. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf035417d
  • Uçar, B. (2011). Pandispanya kek kalitesi üzerine yabani meyvelerin fonksiyonel etkileri, Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Erciyes Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Kayseri, Türkiye.
  • Vinci, R.M., Mestdagh, F., De Meulenaer, B. (2012). Acrylamide formation in fried potato products–Present and future, a critical review on mitigation strategies. Food Chemistry, 133(4), 1138-1154. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.08.001
  • WHO, (2002). FAO/WHO Consultations on the health implications of acrylamide in foods. Summary report of a meeting held in Genova. 25-27 June 2002: summary report. World Health Organization. https://iris.who.int/handle/10665/67372

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Food Safety, Traceability, Certification and Authenticity, Grain Technology
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Beyza Hilal ERMİŞ 0000-0002-8722-6023

Ali GÖNCÜ 0000-0002-9676-1503

Aslı YILDIRIM VARDİN 0000-0001-5898-1209

Burcu KESER 0000-0002-1828-4617

Ayşe Demet KARAMAN 0000-0001-9913-9763

Project Number 1919B011902258
Early Pub Date October 3, 2023
Publication Date October 8, 2023
Submission Date July 20, 2023
Published in Issue Year 2023Volume: 9 Issue: 4

Cite

APA ERMİŞ, B. H., GÖNCÜ, A., YILDIRIM VARDİN, A., KESER, B., et al. (2023). Gıda güvenliği açısından kakaolu keklerde akrilamid tehlikesinin araştırılması. Food and Health, 9(4), 331-340. https://doi.org/10.3153/FH23030

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