Research Article
BibTex RIS Cite

Ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from apple peel

Year 2023, Volume: 9 Issue: 4, 341 - 349, 08.10.2023
https://doi.org/10.3153/FH23031

Abstract

This study investigated the extraction of phenolic compounds from apple peel by ultrasound-assisted extraction (15, 30 and 45 min) and conventional extraction (15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 min). The antioxidant capacity (DPPH), total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, and individual phenolic compounds of apple peel extracts were determined. HPLC analysis indicated that apple peel extracts had chlorogenic acid, rutin, catechin, epicatechin, procyanidin B1, procyanidin B2 and procyanidin C1. In the conventional method, the total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of apple peel extract in 90 min of conventional extraction was found as 1848.50 ±0.40 mg GAE/kg, 571.01 ±2.88 mgKA/kg and 9.70±0.00 mmol Trolox eq./g, respectively. In 45 min of the ultrasound-assisted extraction, total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of extracts were determined as 2021.83±65.69 mg GAE/kg, 532.66 ±2.43 mgKA/kg and 11.73 ±0.08 mmol Trolox eq./g respectively. The application of ultrasound-assisted extraction markedly decreased extraction time and improved the extraction efficiency compared with the conventional method.

References

  • Annegowda, H.V., Anwar, L.N., Mordi, M.N., Ramanathan, S. Mansor, S. M. (2010). Influence of sonication on the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Terminalia catappa L. leaves. Pharmacognosy Research, 2(6), 368-373. https://doi.org/10.4103/0974-8490.75457
  • Anticona, M., Blesa, J., Lopez-Malo, D., Frigola, A., Esteve, M.J. (2021). Effects of ultrasound-assisted extraction on physicochemical properties, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant capacity for the valorization of hybrid Mandarin peels. Food Bioscience, 42, 101185. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fbio.2021.101185
  • Carrera, C., Ruiz-Rodríguez, A., Palma, M., Barroso, C.G. (2012). Ultrasound assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from grapes. Analytica Chimica Acta, 732, 100-104. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2011.11.032
  • Colaric, M., Veberic, R., Solar, A., Hudina, M., Stampar, F. (2005). Phenolic acids, syringaldehyde, and juglone in fruits of different cultivars of Juglans regia L. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53(16), 6390-6396. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf050721n
  • de Torres, C., Díaz-Maroto, M.C., Hermosín-Gutiérrez, I., Pérez-Coello, M.S. (2010). Effect of freeze-drying and oven-drying on volatiles and phenolics composition of grape skin. Analytica Chimica Acta, 660, 177-182. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2009.10.005
  • Drogoudi, P.D., Michailidis, Z., Pantelidis, G. (2008). Peel and flesh antioxidant content and harvest quality characteristics of seven apple cultivars. Scientia Horticulturae, 115, 149-153. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2007.08.010
  • Egüés, I., Hernandez-Ramos, F., Rivilla, I., Labidi, J. (2021). Optimization of Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Bioactive Compounds from Apple Pomace. Molecules, 26(13), 3783. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26133783
  • Gajic, I. S., Savic, I., Boskov, I., Žerajić, S., Markovic, I., Gajic, D. (2019). Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Black Locust (Robiniae Pseudoacaciae) Flowers and Comparison with Conventional Methods. Antioxidants, 8(8), 248. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8080248 Júnior, M.E.S., Araújo, M.V.R.L., Santana, A.A., Silva, F.L.H., Maciel, M.I.S. (2021). Ultrasound-assisted extraction of bioactive compounds from ciriguela (Spondias purpurea L.) peel: Optimization and comparison with conventional extraction and microwave. Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 14(8), 103260. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arabjc.2021.103260
  • Kabir, F., Tow, W.W., Hamauzu, Y., Katayama, S., Tanaka, S., Nakamura, S. (2015). Antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of extracts prepared from fruit and vegetable wastes and by-products. Food Chemistry, 167, 358-362. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.06.099
  • Khan, M.K., Abert-Vian, M., Fabiano-Tixier, A.S., Dangles, O., Chemat, F. (2010). Ultrasound-assisted extraction of polyphenols (flavanone glycosides) from orange (Citrus sinensis L.) peel. Food Chemistry, 119(2), 851-858. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.08.046
  • Kumari, B., Tiwari, B.K., Hossain, M.B., Rai, D.K., Brunton, N.P. (2017). Ultrasound-assisted extraction of polyphenols from potato peels: Profiling and kinetic modelling. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 52(6), 1432-1439. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijfs.13404
  • Kumcuoğlu, S., Yılmaz, T., Tavman, Ş. (2011). Salça Üretim Atıklarından Ultrason Destekli Ekstraksiyon İşlemiyle Likopen Ekstraksiyonu. Akademik Gıda, 9(6), 23-28.
  • Mcsweeney, M., Seetharaman, K. (2015). State of Polyphenols in the Drying Process of Fruits and Vegetables. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 55(5), 660-669. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2012.670673
  • Meregalli, M.M., Puton, B.M.S., Camera, F. D., Amaral, A.U., Zeni, J., Cansian, R.L., Mignoni, M.L., Backes, G.T. (2020). Conventional and ultrasound-assisted methods for extraction of bioactive compounds from red araçá peel (Psidium cattleianum Sabine). Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 13, 5800-5809. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arabjc.2020.04.017
  • Pyo, Y.H., Lee, T.C., Logendra, L., Rosen, R.T. (2004). Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of swiss chard (Beta vulgaris Subspecies cycla) extracts. Food Chemistry, 85(1), 19-26. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(03)00294-2
  • Ramli, N.S., Ismail, P., Rahmat, A. (2014). Influence of Conventional and Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction on Phenolic Contents, Betacyanin Contents, and Antioxidant Capacity of Red Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus). The Scientific World Journal, 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/964731
  • Rana, S., Bhushan, S. (2016). Apple phenolics as nutraceuticals: assessment, analysis and application. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 53(4), 1727-1738. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-015-2093-8
  • Rupasinghe, H.P.V., Wang, L., Huber, G.M., Pitts, N.L. (2008). Effect of baking on dietary fibre and phenolics of muffins incorporated with apple skin powder. Food Chemistry, 107(3), 1217-1224. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.09.057
  • Singleton, V.L., Rossi, J.A. (1965). Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphotungustic acid reagents. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 16, 144-158. https://doi.org/10.5344/ajev.1965.16.3.144
  • Uğurlu, S., Bakkalbaşı, E. (2023). Yeşil Cevizlerden Ultrason Destekli Ekstraksiyon Yöntemiyle Fenolik Bileşiklerin Eldesi. Yüzüncü Yıl Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi, 28(1), 185-191. https://doi.org/10.53433/yyufbed.1150133
  • Virot, M., Tomao, V., Bourvellec, C.L., Renard, C.M.C.G., Chemat, F. (2010). Towards the industrial production of antioxidants from food processing by-products with ultrasound-assisted extraction. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 17(6), 1066-1074. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2009.10.015
  • Wang, J., Sun, B., Cao, Y., Tian, Y., Li, X. (2008). Optimisation of ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from wheat bran. Food Chemistry, 106(2), 804-810. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.06.062
  • Wang, L., Weller, C.L. (2006). Recent advances in extraction of nutraceuticals from plants. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 17(6), 300-312. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2005.12.004
  • Wolfe, K.L., Liu, R.H. (2003). Apple Peels as a Value-Added Food Ingredient. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51, 1676-1683. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf025916z
  • Wolfe, K., Wu, X., Liu, R.H. (2003). Antioxidant Activity of Apple Peels. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51, 609-614. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf020782a
  • Wu, J., Gao, H., Zhao, L., Liao, X., Chen, F., Wang, Z., Hu, X. (2007). Chemical compositional characterization of some apple cultivars. Food Chemistry, 103(1), 88-93. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.07.030
  • Yang, Q.Q., Cheng, L.Z., Zhang, T., Yaron, S, Jiang, H.X., Sui, Z.Q., Corke, H. (2020). Phenolic profiles, antioxidant, and antiproliferative activities of turmeric (Curcuma longa). Industrial Crops & Products, 152, 112561. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2020.112561
  • Zhishen, J., Mengcheng, T., Jianming, W. (1999). The determination of flavonoid contents in mulberry and their scavenging effects on superoxide radicals. Food Chemistry, 64(4), 555-559. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(98)00102-2

Elma kabuğundan fenolik maddelerin ultrases destekli ekstraksiyonu

Year 2023, Volume: 9 Issue: 4, 341 - 349, 08.10.2023
https://doi.org/10.3153/FH23031

Abstract

Bu çalışmada, elma kabuğundan fenolik bileşiklerin ultrases destekli ekstraksiyon (15, 30 ve 45 dakika) ve konvansiyonel ekstraksiyon (15, 30, 45, 60, 75 ve 90 dakika) yöntemleri ile ekstrakte edilmesi araştırıldı. Elma kabuğu ekstraktlarının antioksidan kapasitesi (DPPH), toplam fenolik madde, toplam flavanoid madde ve bireysel fenolik içeriği belirlendi. İki farklı ekstraksiyon yöntemi ile elde edilen elma kabuk ekstraktlarında klorojenik asit, rutin, kateşin, epikateşin, prosiyanidin B1, prosiyanidin B2 ve prosiyanidin C1 tespit edildi. Konvansiyonel yöntemde 90 dakikalık ekstraksiyon sonunda toplam fenolik, toplam flavonoid ve antioksidan aktivite sırasıyla 1848.50 ±0.40 mg GAE/kg, 571.01 ±2.88 mgKA/kg ve 9.70 ±0.00 mmol Trolox eq./g olarak bulunurken 45 dakikalık ultrases destekli ekstraksiyonda toplam fenolik, toplam flavonoid ve antioksidan aktivite sırasıyla 2021.83 ±65.69 mg GAE/kg, 532.66 ±2.43 mgKA/kg ve 11.73 ±0.08 mmol Trolox eq./g olarak belirlendi. Konvansiyonel yöntemle karşılaştırıldığında, ultrases destekli ekstraksiyon uygulamasının elma kabuklarından fenolik madde ekstraksiyonunun süresini önemli ölçüde azalttığı ve ekstraksiyon verimliliğini arttırdığı tespit edildi.

References

  • Annegowda, H.V., Anwar, L.N., Mordi, M.N., Ramanathan, S. Mansor, S. M. (2010). Influence of sonication on the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Terminalia catappa L. leaves. Pharmacognosy Research, 2(6), 368-373. https://doi.org/10.4103/0974-8490.75457
  • Anticona, M., Blesa, J., Lopez-Malo, D., Frigola, A., Esteve, M.J. (2021). Effects of ultrasound-assisted extraction on physicochemical properties, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant capacity for the valorization of hybrid Mandarin peels. Food Bioscience, 42, 101185. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fbio.2021.101185
  • Carrera, C., Ruiz-Rodríguez, A., Palma, M., Barroso, C.G. (2012). Ultrasound assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from grapes. Analytica Chimica Acta, 732, 100-104. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2011.11.032
  • Colaric, M., Veberic, R., Solar, A., Hudina, M., Stampar, F. (2005). Phenolic acids, syringaldehyde, and juglone in fruits of different cultivars of Juglans regia L. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53(16), 6390-6396. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf050721n
  • de Torres, C., Díaz-Maroto, M.C., Hermosín-Gutiérrez, I., Pérez-Coello, M.S. (2010). Effect of freeze-drying and oven-drying on volatiles and phenolics composition of grape skin. Analytica Chimica Acta, 660, 177-182. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2009.10.005
  • Drogoudi, P.D., Michailidis, Z., Pantelidis, G. (2008). Peel and flesh antioxidant content and harvest quality characteristics of seven apple cultivars. Scientia Horticulturae, 115, 149-153. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2007.08.010
  • Egüés, I., Hernandez-Ramos, F., Rivilla, I., Labidi, J. (2021). Optimization of Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Bioactive Compounds from Apple Pomace. Molecules, 26(13), 3783. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26133783
  • Gajic, I. S., Savic, I., Boskov, I., Žerajić, S., Markovic, I., Gajic, D. (2019). Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Black Locust (Robiniae Pseudoacaciae) Flowers and Comparison with Conventional Methods. Antioxidants, 8(8), 248. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8080248 Júnior, M.E.S., Araújo, M.V.R.L., Santana, A.A., Silva, F.L.H., Maciel, M.I.S. (2021). Ultrasound-assisted extraction of bioactive compounds from ciriguela (Spondias purpurea L.) peel: Optimization and comparison with conventional extraction and microwave. Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 14(8), 103260. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arabjc.2021.103260
  • Kabir, F., Tow, W.W., Hamauzu, Y., Katayama, S., Tanaka, S., Nakamura, S. (2015). Antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of extracts prepared from fruit and vegetable wastes and by-products. Food Chemistry, 167, 358-362. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.06.099
  • Khan, M.K., Abert-Vian, M., Fabiano-Tixier, A.S., Dangles, O., Chemat, F. (2010). Ultrasound-assisted extraction of polyphenols (flavanone glycosides) from orange (Citrus sinensis L.) peel. Food Chemistry, 119(2), 851-858. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.08.046
  • Kumari, B., Tiwari, B.K., Hossain, M.B., Rai, D.K., Brunton, N.P. (2017). Ultrasound-assisted extraction of polyphenols from potato peels: Profiling and kinetic modelling. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 52(6), 1432-1439. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijfs.13404
  • Kumcuoğlu, S., Yılmaz, T., Tavman, Ş. (2011). Salça Üretim Atıklarından Ultrason Destekli Ekstraksiyon İşlemiyle Likopen Ekstraksiyonu. Akademik Gıda, 9(6), 23-28.
  • Mcsweeney, M., Seetharaman, K. (2015). State of Polyphenols in the Drying Process of Fruits and Vegetables. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 55(5), 660-669. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2012.670673
  • Meregalli, M.M., Puton, B.M.S., Camera, F. D., Amaral, A.U., Zeni, J., Cansian, R.L., Mignoni, M.L., Backes, G.T. (2020). Conventional and ultrasound-assisted methods for extraction of bioactive compounds from red araçá peel (Psidium cattleianum Sabine). Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 13, 5800-5809. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arabjc.2020.04.017
  • Pyo, Y.H., Lee, T.C., Logendra, L., Rosen, R.T. (2004). Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of swiss chard (Beta vulgaris Subspecies cycla) extracts. Food Chemistry, 85(1), 19-26. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(03)00294-2
  • Ramli, N.S., Ismail, P., Rahmat, A. (2014). Influence of Conventional and Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction on Phenolic Contents, Betacyanin Contents, and Antioxidant Capacity of Red Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus). The Scientific World Journal, 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/964731
  • Rana, S., Bhushan, S. (2016). Apple phenolics as nutraceuticals: assessment, analysis and application. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 53(4), 1727-1738. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-015-2093-8
  • Rupasinghe, H.P.V., Wang, L., Huber, G.M., Pitts, N.L. (2008). Effect of baking on dietary fibre and phenolics of muffins incorporated with apple skin powder. Food Chemistry, 107(3), 1217-1224. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.09.057
  • Singleton, V.L., Rossi, J.A. (1965). Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphotungustic acid reagents. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 16, 144-158. https://doi.org/10.5344/ajev.1965.16.3.144
  • Uğurlu, S., Bakkalbaşı, E. (2023). Yeşil Cevizlerden Ultrason Destekli Ekstraksiyon Yöntemiyle Fenolik Bileşiklerin Eldesi. Yüzüncü Yıl Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi, 28(1), 185-191. https://doi.org/10.53433/yyufbed.1150133
  • Virot, M., Tomao, V., Bourvellec, C.L., Renard, C.M.C.G., Chemat, F. (2010). Towards the industrial production of antioxidants from food processing by-products with ultrasound-assisted extraction. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 17(6), 1066-1074. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2009.10.015
  • Wang, J., Sun, B., Cao, Y., Tian, Y., Li, X. (2008). Optimisation of ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from wheat bran. Food Chemistry, 106(2), 804-810. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.06.062
  • Wang, L., Weller, C.L. (2006). Recent advances in extraction of nutraceuticals from plants. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 17(6), 300-312. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2005.12.004
  • Wolfe, K.L., Liu, R.H. (2003). Apple Peels as a Value-Added Food Ingredient. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51, 1676-1683. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf025916z
  • Wolfe, K., Wu, X., Liu, R.H. (2003). Antioxidant Activity of Apple Peels. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51, 609-614. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf020782a
  • Wu, J., Gao, H., Zhao, L., Liao, X., Chen, F., Wang, Z., Hu, X. (2007). Chemical compositional characterization of some apple cultivars. Food Chemistry, 103(1), 88-93. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.07.030
  • Yang, Q.Q., Cheng, L.Z., Zhang, T., Yaron, S, Jiang, H.X., Sui, Z.Q., Corke, H. (2020). Phenolic profiles, antioxidant, and antiproliferative activities of turmeric (Curcuma longa). Industrial Crops & Products, 152, 112561. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2020.112561
  • Zhishen, J., Mengcheng, T., Jianming, W. (1999). The determination of flavonoid contents in mulberry and their scavenging effects on superoxide radicals. Food Chemistry, 64(4), 555-559. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(98)00102-2

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Food Technology
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Serdar UĞURLU 0000-0002-5785-9647

Emre BAKKALBAŞI 0000-0001-9913-1091

Early Pub Date October 8, 2023
Publication Date October 8, 2023
Submission Date June 15, 2023
Published in Issue Year 2023Volume: 9 Issue: 4

Cite

APA UĞURLU, S., & BAKKALBAŞI, E. (2023). Elma kabuğundan fenolik maddelerin ultrases destekli ekstraksiyonu. Food and Health, 9(4), 341-349. https://doi.org/10.3153/FH23031

16339

Journal is licensed under a

CreativeCommons Attribtion-ShareAlike 4.0 International Licence  14627 1331027042
Diamond Open Access refers to a scholarly publication model in which journals and platforms do not charge fees to either authors or readers.

Open Access Statement:

This is an open access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.

Archiving Policy:

27222

Archiving is done according to ULAKBİM "DergiPark" publication policy (LOCKSS).