Review Article
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Besinlerde melanoidinlerin oluşumu ve sağlık üzerine etkileri

Year 2023, Volume: 9 Issue: 4, 350 - 358, 08.10.2023
https://doi.org/10.3153/FH23032

Abstract

Melanoidinler, gıdanın ısıl işlemi sırasında meydana gelen maillard reaksiyonunun son aşamalarında oluşan indirgen şekerler ve proteinler veya amino asitlerden üretilen kahverengi, yüksek moleküler ağırlıklı bileşiklerdir. Beslenmemizde melanoidinlerin başlıca kaynağı ekmek ve unlu mamullerdir. Melanoidinlerin kimyasal yapıları tam olarak bilinmemekle birlikte diyetle günlük yaklaşık 10 g alındığı tahmin edilmektedir. Melanoidinler oluştukları gıdanın bileşimine bağlı olarak melanosakkaritler (kahve, bira ve kakao) ve melanoproteinler (ekmek ve unlu mamuller) şeklinde bulunur. Besinlerde melanoidinlerin oluşumu ürünün bileşimi, ısıl işlem süresi ve sıcaklığı, pH değeri, su içeriği ve reaktanların aktivitesi gibi koşullara bağlıdır. Melanoidinlerin insan sağlığı üzerinde; prebiyotik, antioksidan, antimikrobiyal, antikarsinojenik, antihipertansif, ksenobiyotik enzim aktivitesi, iştah ve enerji alımını düzenleme gibi birçok faydalı etkileri bulunmaktadır. Melanoidinler gastrointestinal sistemde, bifidobakterilerin büyümesini sağlayarak diyet posası olarak da davranırlar. Ayrıca, melanoidinler gıdaların doku ve lezzetine katkı sağlayarak gıdanın kalitesini koruyabilir. Bu derleme yazının amacı; melanoidinlerin oluşumunu, etki mekanizması, besinlerdeki miktarları ve insan sağlığı üzerine olası etkilerini incelemektir.

References

  • Adams, A., Borrelli, R.C., Fogliano, V., De Kimpe, N. (2005). Thermal degradation studies of food melanoidins. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, 53(10), 4136-4142. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf047903m
  • Alves, G., Xavier, P., Limoeiro, R., Perrone, D. (2020). Contribution of melanoidins from heat-processed foods to the phenolic compound intake and antioxidant capacity of the Brazilian diet. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 57(8), 3119-3131. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-020-04346-0
  • Bellesia, A., Tagliazucchi, D. (2014). Cocoa brew inhibits in vitro α-glucosidase activity: The role of polyphenols and high molecular weight compounds. Food Research International, 63, 439-445. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2014.03.047
  • Bichler, J., Cavin, C., Simic, T., Chakraborty, A., Ferk, F., Hoelzl, C., Schulte-Hermann, R., Kundi, M., Haidinger, G., Angelis, K., Knasmüller, S. (2007). Coffee consumption protects human lymphocytes against oxidative and 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido [4, 3-b] indole acetate (Trp-P-2) induced DNA-damage: results of an experimental study with human volunteers. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 45(8), 1428-1436. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2007.02.001
  • Borrelli, R.C., Fogliano, V. (2005). Bread crust melanoidins as potential prebiotic ingredients. Molecular Nutrition Food Research International, 49(7), 673-678. https://doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.200500011
  • Borrelli, R.C., Mennella, C., Barba, F., Russo, M., Russo, G. L., Krome, K., Erbersdobler, H.F., Faist, V., Fogliano, V. (2003). Characterization of coloured compounds obtained by enzymatic extraction of bakery products. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 41(10), 1367-1374. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0278-6915(03)00140-6
  • Borrelli, R.C., Visconti, A., Mennella, C., Anese, M., Fogliano, V. (2002). Chemical characterization and antioxidant properties of coffee melanoidins. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, 50(22), 6527-6533. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf025686o
  • Delgado-Andrade, C. (2014). Maillard reaction products: some considerations on their health effects. Clinical Chemistry Laboratory Medicine, 52(1), 53-60. https://doi.org/10.1515/cclm-2012-0823
  • Finot, P., Magnenat, E. (1981). Metabolic transit of early and advanced Maillard products. Progress in food Nutrition Science, 5(1-6), 193-207.
  • Fogliano, V., Morales, F.J. (2011). Estimation of dietary intake of melanoidins from coffee and bread. Food & Function, 2(2), 117-123. https://doi.org/10.1039/c0fo00156b
  • García, M.M., Seiquer, I., Delgado‐Andrade, C., Galdo, G., Navarro, M.P. (2009). Intake of Maillard reaction products reduces iron bioavailability in male adolescents. Molecular Nutrition Food Research International, 53(12), 1551-1560. https://doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.200800330 Hiramoto, S., Itoh, K., Shizuuchi, S., Kawachi, Y., Morishita, Y., Nagase, et al. (2004). Melanoidin, a food protein‐derived advanced Maillard reaction product, suppresses Helicobacter pylori in vitro and in vivo. Helicobacter, 9(5), 429-435. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1083-4389.2004.00263.x
  • Hodge, J.E. (1953). Dehydrated foods, chemistry of browning reactions in model systems. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, 1(15), 928-943. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf60015a004
  • Jaquet, M., Rochat, I., Moulin, J., Cavin, C., Bibiloni, R. (2009). Impact of coffee consumption on the gut microbiota: a human volunteer study. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 130(2), 117-121. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2009.01.011
  • Kim, J.-S., Lee, Y.-S. (2008). Effect of reaction pH on enolization and racemization reactions of glucose and fructose on heating with amino acid enantiomers and formation of melanoidins as result of the Maillard reaction. Food Chemistry, 108(2), 582-592. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.11.014
  • Langner, E., Nunes, F.M., Pozarowski, P., Kandefer-Szerszen, M., Pierzynowski, S.G., Rzeski, W. (2011). Antiproliferative activity of melanoidins isolated from heated potato fiber (Potex) in glioma cell culture model. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, 59(6), 2708-2716. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf1047223
  • Maillard, L. (1912). Réaction générale des acides aminés sur les sucres. Journal de Physiologie, 14, 813.
  • Manzocco, L., Calligaris, S., Mastrocola, D., Nicoli, M.C., Lerici, C.R. (2000). Review of non-enzymatic browning and antioxidant capacity in processed foods. Trends in Food Science Technology, 11(9-10), 340-346. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0924-2244(01)00014-0
  • Morales, F.J. (2002). Application of capillary zone electrophoresis to the study of food and food-model melanoidins. Food Chemistry, 76(3), 363-369. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(01)00295-3
  • Morales, F.J., Somoza, V., Fogliano, V. (2012). Physiological relevance of dietary melanoidins. Amino Acids, 42(4), 1097-1109. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00726-010-0774-1
  • Nakayama, T., Oishi, K. (2013). Influence of coffee (Coffea arabica) and galacto-oligosaccharide consumption on intestinal microbiota and the host responses. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 343(2), 161-168. https://doi.org/10.1111/1574-6968.12142
  • Natella, F., Nardini, M., Giannetti, I., Dattilo, C., Scaccini, C. (2002). Coffee drinking influences plasma antioxidant capacity in humans. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, 50(21), 6211-6216. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf025768c
  • Nunes, F.M., Coimbra, M.A. (2010). Role of hydroxycinnamates in coffee melanoidin formation. Phytochemical Review, 9(1), 171-185. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11101-009-9151-7 Obretenov, T.D., Ivanova, S.D., Kuntcheva, M.J., Somov, G.T. (1993). Melanoidin formation in cooked meat products. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 41(4), 653-656. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00028a028
  • Pastoriza, S., Rufián-Henares, J.A. (2014). Contribution of melanoidins to the antioxidant capacity of the Spanish diet. Food Chemistry, 164, 438-445. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.04.118
  • Rajakaruna, S., Pérez-Burillo, S., Kramer, D.L., Rufián-Henares, J., Paliy, O. (2022). Dietary melanoidins from biscuits and bread crust alter the structure and short-chain fatty acid production of human gut microbiota. Microorganisms, 10(7). https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10071268
  • Rufián-Henares, J.A., de la Cueva, S.P. (2009). Antimicrobial activity of coffee melanoidins- a study of their metal-chelating properties. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, 57(2), 432-438. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf8027842
  • Rufián-Henares, J.A., Morales, F.J. (2007). Functional properties of melanoidins: In vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial and antihypertensive activities. Food Research International, 40(8), 995-1002. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2007.05.002
  • Sacchetti, G., Di Mattia, C., Pittia, P., Mastrocola, D. (2009). Effect of roasting degree, equivalent thermal effect and coffee type on the radical scavenging activity of coffee brews and their phenolic fraction. Journal of Food Engineering, 90(1), 74-80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2008.06.005
  • Shaheen, S., Shorbagi, M., Lorenzo, J.M., Farag, M.A. (2022). Dissecting dietary melanoidins: formation mechanisms, gut interactions and functional properties. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 62(32), 8954-8971. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2021.1937509
  • Sharma, J.K., Sihmar, M., Santal, A.R., Prager, L., Carbonero, F., Singh, N.P. (2021). Barley melanoidins: Key dietary compounds with potential health benefits. Frontiers in Nutrition, 8, 708194. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2021.708194
  • Silván, J.M., Morales, F.J., Saura-Calixto, F. (2010). Conceptual study on maillardized dietary fiber in coffee. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, 58(23), 12244-12249. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf102489u
  • Stauder, M., Papetti, A., Mascherpa, D., Schito, A.M., Gazzani, G., Pruzzo, C., Daglia, M. (2010). Antiadhesion and antibiofilm activities of high molecular weight coffee components against Streptococcus mutans. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, 58(22), 11662-11666. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf1031839
  • Tagliazucchi, D., Bellesia, A. (2015). The gastro-intestinal tract as the major site of biological action of dietary melanoidins. Amino Acids, 47(6), 1077-1089. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00726-015-1951-z
  • Tagliazucchi, D., Verzelloni, E. (2014). Relationship between the chemical composition and the biological activities of food melanoidins. Food Science and Biotechnology, 23(2), 561-568. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10068-014-0077-5
  • Takahama, U., Hirota, S. (2008). Reduction of nitrous acid to nitric oxide by coffee melanoidins and enhancement of the reduction by thiocyanate: Possibility of its occurrence in the stomach. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, 56(12), 4736-4744. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf703660k
  • Thanikachalam, K., Khan, G. (2019). Colorectal Cancer and Nutrition. Nutrients, 11(1). https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010164
  • Walker, J.M., Mennella, I., Ferracane, R., Tagliamonte, S., Holik, A.-K., Hölz, K., Vitaglione, P. (2020). Melanoidins from coffee and bread differently influence energy intake: A randomized controlled trial of food intake and gut-brain axis response. Journal of Functional Foods, 72, 104063. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2020.104063
  • Wang, H.-Y., Qian, H., Yao, W.-R. (2011). Melanoidins produced by the Maillard reaction: Structure and biological activity. Food Chemistry, 128(3), 573-584. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.03.075

Formation of melanoidins in foods and effects on health

Year 2023, Volume: 9 Issue: 4, 350 - 358, 08.10.2023
https://doi.org/10.3153/FH23032

Abstract

Melanoidins are brown, high molecular weight compounds generated in the late stages of the Maillard reaction from reducing sugars and proteins or amino acids during thermal food processing. The primary source of melanoidin is bread and bakery products in the diet. Although the chemical structures of melanoidins are not precisely known, the daily dietary intake is estimated at approximately 10 g. Melanoidins exist as monosaccharides (coffee, beer, and cocoa) and melanoproteins (bread and bakery products), depending on the food composition they form. The formation of melanoidins in foods depends on conditions such as composition of products, heat treatment time and temperature, pH, water and activity of reactants. Melanoidins have many beneficial effects on health, such as prebiotic, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticarcinogenic, antihypertensive, xenobiotic enzyme activity, appetite regulation, and energy intake. In the gastrointestinal tract, melanoidins behave as dietary fibre by promoting the growth of bifidobacteria. In addition, melanoidins can preserve the quality of food by contributing to the texture and flavour of food. This review examines the formation, amount of food, mechanism of action and effects on human health of melanoidins.

References

  • Adams, A., Borrelli, R.C., Fogliano, V., De Kimpe, N. (2005). Thermal degradation studies of food melanoidins. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, 53(10), 4136-4142. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf047903m
  • Alves, G., Xavier, P., Limoeiro, R., Perrone, D. (2020). Contribution of melanoidins from heat-processed foods to the phenolic compound intake and antioxidant capacity of the Brazilian diet. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 57(8), 3119-3131. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-020-04346-0
  • Bellesia, A., Tagliazucchi, D. (2014). Cocoa brew inhibits in vitro α-glucosidase activity: The role of polyphenols and high molecular weight compounds. Food Research International, 63, 439-445. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2014.03.047
  • Bichler, J., Cavin, C., Simic, T., Chakraborty, A., Ferk, F., Hoelzl, C., Schulte-Hermann, R., Kundi, M., Haidinger, G., Angelis, K., Knasmüller, S. (2007). Coffee consumption protects human lymphocytes against oxidative and 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido [4, 3-b] indole acetate (Trp-P-2) induced DNA-damage: results of an experimental study with human volunteers. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 45(8), 1428-1436. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2007.02.001
  • Borrelli, R.C., Fogliano, V. (2005). Bread crust melanoidins as potential prebiotic ingredients. Molecular Nutrition Food Research International, 49(7), 673-678. https://doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.200500011
  • Borrelli, R.C., Mennella, C., Barba, F., Russo, M., Russo, G. L., Krome, K., Erbersdobler, H.F., Faist, V., Fogliano, V. (2003). Characterization of coloured compounds obtained by enzymatic extraction of bakery products. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 41(10), 1367-1374. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0278-6915(03)00140-6
  • Borrelli, R.C., Visconti, A., Mennella, C., Anese, M., Fogliano, V. (2002). Chemical characterization and antioxidant properties of coffee melanoidins. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, 50(22), 6527-6533. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf025686o
  • Delgado-Andrade, C. (2014). Maillard reaction products: some considerations on their health effects. Clinical Chemistry Laboratory Medicine, 52(1), 53-60. https://doi.org/10.1515/cclm-2012-0823
  • Finot, P., Magnenat, E. (1981). Metabolic transit of early and advanced Maillard products. Progress in food Nutrition Science, 5(1-6), 193-207.
  • Fogliano, V., Morales, F.J. (2011). Estimation of dietary intake of melanoidins from coffee and bread. Food & Function, 2(2), 117-123. https://doi.org/10.1039/c0fo00156b
  • García, M.M., Seiquer, I., Delgado‐Andrade, C., Galdo, G., Navarro, M.P. (2009). Intake of Maillard reaction products reduces iron bioavailability in male adolescents. Molecular Nutrition Food Research International, 53(12), 1551-1560. https://doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.200800330 Hiramoto, S., Itoh, K., Shizuuchi, S., Kawachi, Y., Morishita, Y., Nagase, et al. (2004). Melanoidin, a food protein‐derived advanced Maillard reaction product, suppresses Helicobacter pylori in vitro and in vivo. Helicobacter, 9(5), 429-435. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1083-4389.2004.00263.x
  • Hodge, J.E. (1953). Dehydrated foods, chemistry of browning reactions in model systems. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, 1(15), 928-943. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf60015a004
  • Jaquet, M., Rochat, I., Moulin, J., Cavin, C., Bibiloni, R. (2009). Impact of coffee consumption on the gut microbiota: a human volunteer study. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 130(2), 117-121. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2009.01.011
  • Kim, J.-S., Lee, Y.-S. (2008). Effect of reaction pH on enolization and racemization reactions of glucose and fructose on heating with amino acid enantiomers and formation of melanoidins as result of the Maillard reaction. Food Chemistry, 108(2), 582-592. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.11.014
  • Langner, E., Nunes, F.M., Pozarowski, P., Kandefer-Szerszen, M., Pierzynowski, S.G., Rzeski, W. (2011). Antiproliferative activity of melanoidins isolated from heated potato fiber (Potex) in glioma cell culture model. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, 59(6), 2708-2716. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf1047223
  • Maillard, L. (1912). Réaction générale des acides aminés sur les sucres. Journal de Physiologie, 14, 813.
  • Manzocco, L., Calligaris, S., Mastrocola, D., Nicoli, M.C., Lerici, C.R. (2000). Review of non-enzymatic browning and antioxidant capacity in processed foods. Trends in Food Science Technology, 11(9-10), 340-346. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0924-2244(01)00014-0
  • Morales, F.J. (2002). Application of capillary zone electrophoresis to the study of food and food-model melanoidins. Food Chemistry, 76(3), 363-369. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(01)00295-3
  • Morales, F.J., Somoza, V., Fogliano, V. (2012). Physiological relevance of dietary melanoidins. Amino Acids, 42(4), 1097-1109. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00726-010-0774-1
  • Nakayama, T., Oishi, K. (2013). Influence of coffee (Coffea arabica) and galacto-oligosaccharide consumption on intestinal microbiota and the host responses. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 343(2), 161-168. https://doi.org/10.1111/1574-6968.12142
  • Natella, F., Nardini, M., Giannetti, I., Dattilo, C., Scaccini, C. (2002). Coffee drinking influences plasma antioxidant capacity in humans. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, 50(21), 6211-6216. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf025768c
  • Nunes, F.M., Coimbra, M.A. (2010). Role of hydroxycinnamates in coffee melanoidin formation. Phytochemical Review, 9(1), 171-185. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11101-009-9151-7 Obretenov, T.D., Ivanova, S.D., Kuntcheva, M.J., Somov, G.T. (1993). Melanoidin formation in cooked meat products. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 41(4), 653-656. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00028a028
  • Pastoriza, S., Rufián-Henares, J.A. (2014). Contribution of melanoidins to the antioxidant capacity of the Spanish diet. Food Chemistry, 164, 438-445. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.04.118
  • Rajakaruna, S., Pérez-Burillo, S., Kramer, D.L., Rufián-Henares, J., Paliy, O. (2022). Dietary melanoidins from biscuits and bread crust alter the structure and short-chain fatty acid production of human gut microbiota. Microorganisms, 10(7). https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10071268
  • Rufián-Henares, J.A., de la Cueva, S.P. (2009). Antimicrobial activity of coffee melanoidins- a study of their metal-chelating properties. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, 57(2), 432-438. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf8027842
  • Rufián-Henares, J.A., Morales, F.J. (2007). Functional properties of melanoidins: In vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial and antihypertensive activities. Food Research International, 40(8), 995-1002. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2007.05.002
  • Sacchetti, G., Di Mattia, C., Pittia, P., Mastrocola, D. (2009). Effect of roasting degree, equivalent thermal effect and coffee type on the radical scavenging activity of coffee brews and their phenolic fraction. Journal of Food Engineering, 90(1), 74-80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2008.06.005
  • Shaheen, S., Shorbagi, M., Lorenzo, J.M., Farag, M.A. (2022). Dissecting dietary melanoidins: formation mechanisms, gut interactions and functional properties. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 62(32), 8954-8971. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2021.1937509
  • Sharma, J.K., Sihmar, M., Santal, A.R., Prager, L., Carbonero, F., Singh, N.P. (2021). Barley melanoidins: Key dietary compounds with potential health benefits. Frontiers in Nutrition, 8, 708194. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2021.708194
  • Silván, J.M., Morales, F.J., Saura-Calixto, F. (2010). Conceptual study on maillardized dietary fiber in coffee. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, 58(23), 12244-12249. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf102489u
  • Stauder, M., Papetti, A., Mascherpa, D., Schito, A.M., Gazzani, G., Pruzzo, C., Daglia, M. (2010). Antiadhesion and antibiofilm activities of high molecular weight coffee components against Streptococcus mutans. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, 58(22), 11662-11666. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf1031839
  • Tagliazucchi, D., Bellesia, A. (2015). The gastro-intestinal tract as the major site of biological action of dietary melanoidins. Amino Acids, 47(6), 1077-1089. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00726-015-1951-z
  • Tagliazucchi, D., Verzelloni, E. (2014). Relationship between the chemical composition and the biological activities of food melanoidins. Food Science and Biotechnology, 23(2), 561-568. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10068-014-0077-5
  • Takahama, U., Hirota, S. (2008). Reduction of nitrous acid to nitric oxide by coffee melanoidins and enhancement of the reduction by thiocyanate: Possibility of its occurrence in the stomach. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, 56(12), 4736-4744. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf703660k
  • Thanikachalam, K., Khan, G. (2019). Colorectal Cancer and Nutrition. Nutrients, 11(1). https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010164
  • Walker, J.M., Mennella, I., Ferracane, R., Tagliamonte, S., Holik, A.-K., Hölz, K., Vitaglione, P. (2020). Melanoidins from coffee and bread differently influence energy intake: A randomized controlled trial of food intake and gut-brain axis response. Journal of Functional Foods, 72, 104063. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2020.104063
  • Wang, H.-Y., Qian, H., Yao, W.-R. (2011). Melanoidins produced by the Maillard reaction: Structure and biological activity. Food Chemistry, 128(3), 573-584. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.03.075

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Nutritional Science, Clinical Sciences
Journal Section Review Articles
Authors

Gülbin KARAGÖL 0000-0003-3400-0132

Neslişah RAKICIOĞLU 0000-0001-8763-7407

Early Pub Date October 8, 2023
Publication Date October 8, 2023
Submission Date January 24, 2023
Published in Issue Year 2023Volume: 9 Issue: 4

Cite

APA KARAGÖL, G., & RAKICIOĞLU, N. (2023). Besinlerde melanoidinlerin oluşumu ve sağlık üzerine etkileri. Food and Health, 9(4), 350-358. https://doi.org/10.3153/FH23032

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