Year 2019, Volume 5 , Issue 1, Pages 1 - 11 2019-01-01


Matthew Chidozie OGWU [1] , Faith Osasu-oviaesu OMOROTİONMWAN [2] , Happiness İsioma OGWU [3]

Pineapple (Ananas comosus [Linn.] Merr.) is a crop with huge economic potentials. In Nigeria, the plant is cultivated in diverse environment and common among fruit vendors. This study is aimed to collect different morphotypes of A. comosus from public market to assess the bacterial composition and antibacterial properties using standard procedures. Bacterial colonies obtained from the peel and pulp were in the range of 1.19 × 104 to 9.10 × 104 CFU/mL. Higher counts were obtained from the peel than the pulp. More so, results implicated the presence of gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, Bacillus species and Clostridium species on pineapple peels and pulps, which may cause contamination of the fruit, health risks to consumers or handlers of the fruits and barks as well as changes during storage and decreased marketability. Greater varieties of bacteria were also recorded from the peel than the pulp. When antibacterial properties were assessed, no zone of inhibition of pineapple juice extracted from the peel was obtained against susceptible clinical isolates (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) using alcohol extract. On the other hand, zone of inhibition in the range of 13 – 16 mm were obtained from pineapple bark. The results of minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration suggests that pineapple bark extract had significant inhibitory and bactericidal effects on the isolates. These suggest the need for health-related ministries, departments and sectors to develop a protocol to monitor and ensure that street vended fruits and foods are fit for consumption and free from pathogens, which may potentially give rise to public health challenges. The antibacterial properties highlighted in this study may also be further explored for manufacturing antimicrobial drugs and products.  

Pineapple (Ananas comosus), Antibacterial characteristics, Bacterial composition, Inhibition zone, Street vended fruit
  • Abbo, E.S., Olurin, T., Odeyemi, G. (2006). Studies on the storage stability of soursop (Annona muricata L.) juice. African Journal Biotechnology, 5, 108-112.
  • Adham, A.A. (2015). Phytochemical analysis and evaluation antibacterial activity of Citrus medica peel and juice growing in Kurdistan/Iraq. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Sciences, 5(10), 136-141.
  • Alothman, M., Bhat, R., Karim, A.A. (2009). Effects of radiation processing on phytochemicals and antioxidants in plant produce. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 20, 201-212.
  • Appel, L.J., Sacks, F.M., Carey, V.J., Obarzanek, E., Swain, J.F., Miller, E.R., Conlin, P.R., Erlinger, T.P., Rosner, B.A., Laranjo, N.M., Charleston, J., McCarron, P., Bishop, L.M. (2005). Effects of protein, monounsaturated fat, and carbohydrate intake on blood pressure and serum lipids, results of the OmniHeart randomized trial. Journal of the American Medical Association, 294(19), 2455-2464.
  • Ashik, A.A., Vishnu, P.V., Gayathri, R., Geetha, R.V. (2016). Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of pineapple extract against selected microbes. International Journal Pharmarceutical Science Review Research, 39(1), 277-278.
  • Bansode, D.S., Chavan, M.D. (2013). Evaluation of antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analysis of papaya and pineapple fruit juice against selected enteric pathogens. International Journal of Pharm. and Biosciences, 4, 1176-1184.
  • Barth, M., Hankinson, T.R., Zhuang, H., Breidt, F. (2009). Microbiological Spoilage of Fruits and Vegetables. In, Sperber, W.H. and Doyle, M. P. (eds.), Compendium of the Microbiological Spoilage 135 of Foods and Beverages, Food Microbiology and Food Safety. Springer Science. 49p. ISBN: 9781441908261 (online)
  • Bartholomew, D.P., Paul, R.E., Rorbach, K.G. (2003). The pineapple ‘Botany, Production and Uses’, University of Hawaii Manoa Honolulu, USA. http,// (Accessed 10/07/2017).
  • Bartolomé, A.P., Rupérez, P., Fúster, C. (1995). Pineapple fruit, morphological characteristics, chemical composition and sensory analysis of red Spanish and smooth cayenne cultivars. Food Chemistry, 53, 75-79. Baruwa, O.I. (2013). Profitability and constraints of pineapple production in Osun State, Nigeria. Journal of Horticultural Research, 21(2), 59-64.
  • Bhat, R., Ameran, S.B., Karim, A.A., Liong, M.T. (2011). Quality attributes of star fruit (Averrhoac arambola L.) juice treated with ultraviolet radiation. Food Chemistry, 127, 641-644.
  • Braide, W., Oranusi, S.U., Otali, C.C. (2012). Microbiological status of processed fruit juice sold in the commercial city of Onitsha. Scholarly Journal of Biological Science, 1(3), 25-30.
  • Bryan, F.L. (1977). Diseases transmitted by foods contaminated with wastewaters. Journal of Food Protection, 40, 45-56.
  • Buchanan, R.E., Gibbons, N.E. (1974). Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 8th edn. Baltimore, Williams and Wilkins Co. ISBN: 0683011170 9780683011173
  • Buck, J.W., Walcott, R.R., Beuchat, L.R. (2003). Recent trends in microbiological safety of fruits and vegetables. Plant Health Progress, 10, 1094-1098. Cheesbrough, M. (2000) Microbiological Tests. In, Cheesbrough, M., Ed., District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries, Part II, Low Priced Edition, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 105-130.
  • Chukwu, C.O.C., Chukwu, I.D., Onyimba, I.A., Umoh, E.G., Olarubofin, F., Olabode, A.O. (2010). Microbiological quality of pre-cut fruits on sale in retail outlets in Nigeria. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 5(17), 2272-2275.
  • Cowan, S.T. (1974). Cowan and Steel’s Manual for the Identification of Medical Bacteria, 2nd edn. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. ISBN: 0521203996
  • Cowan, S.T., Steel, K.J. (1965). Manual for the Identification of Medical Bacteria. London, Cambridge University Press. ISBN: 0521047366
  • Deanna, M.M., Jeffrey, S.B. (2007). Acid-alkaline Balance, Role in Chronic Disease and Detoxification. Alternative therapy, 13(4), 62-65.
  • Dragsted, L.O., Krath, B., Ravn-Haren, G., Vogel, U.B., Vinggaard, A.M., Bo Jensen, P., Loft, S., Rasmussen, S.E., Sandstrom, T.I., Pedersen, A. (2006). Biological effects of fruit and vegetables. The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 65(1), 61-67. Eklund, C., Lankford, C.E. (1967). Laboratory manual for general microbiology. Prentice-Hall International, Inc., London. 299pp. ISBN: 197001101256
  • Eni, A.O., Oluwawemitan, I.A., Oranusi, U.S. (2010). Microbial quality of fruits and vegetables sold in Sango Ota, Nigeria. African Journal of Food Science, 4(5), 291- 296.
  • FAO (2004). Vegetables. Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations. Rome. 17p. ISBN: 9521048355
  • Girish, H.V., Satish, S. (2008). Antibacterial activity of important medicinal plants on human pathogenic bacteria, Comparative Analysis. World Applied Sciences Journal, 5, 267-271.
  • Hadioetomo, R.S. (1993). Basic Microbiology in Practice, Basic Laboratory Techniques and Procedures. Second printing. PT. Gramedia, Jakarta. 78p. ISBN: 0101116000000026967
  • Haribi, P., Ratih, D. (2008). Media and Reagents for Microbiology Laboratory. Semarang, University of Muhammadiyah Semarang. 78pp. ISBN: 9786027036109
  • Hemalatha, R., Anbuselvi, S. (2013). Physicochemical constituents of pineapple pulp and waste. Journal of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Research, 5(2), 240-242.
  • Hung, H.C., Joshipura, K.J., Jiang, R., Hu, F.B., Hunter, D., Smith-Warner, S.A., Colditz, G, A, Rosner, B., Spiegelman, D. & Willett, W.C. (2004). Fruit and vegetable intake and risk of major chronic disease. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 96(21), 1577- 84.
  • Joy, P.P. (2010). Benefits and uses of pineapple. Pineapple Research Station, Kerala Agricultural University, Kerala, India. (Accessed on 15/02/2015)
  • Kalia, A., Gupta, R.P. (2006). Fruit Microbiology. In, Hui, Y.H.J., Cano, M.P., Gusek, W., Sidhu, J.W., Sinha, N.K. (ed.). Handbook of Fruit and Fruit processing. Blackwell Publishing. UK. 28p. ISSN: 23062150
  • MacFaddin, J.F. (2000). Biochemical tests for identification of medical bacteria, 3rd ed. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA. ISBN: 9780683053180
  • Mahfuza, I. Arzina, H., Md. Kamruzzaman, M., Afifa, K., Md. Afzal, H., Rashed, N., Roksana, H. (2016). Microbial status of street vended fresh-cut fruits, salad vegetables and juices in Dhaka city of Bangladesh. International Food Research Journal, 23(5), 2258-2264.
  • Nascimento, G.F., Locatelli, J., Freitas, P.C., Silva, G.L. (2000). Antibacterial activity of plant extracts and phytochemcals on antibiotic resistant bacteria. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 31, 247-256.
  • Nwachukwu, E., Chukwu, C. M. (2013). Effect of chemical treatments on the microbial load of fruits and vegetables. International Journal of Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Research, 1, 16-19.
  • Ogwu, M.C., Osawaru, M.E. (2015). Soil characteristics, microbial compostion of plot, leaf count and sprout studies of cocoyam (Colocasia [Schott] and Xanthosoma [Schott], Araceae) collected in Edo state, Southern Nigeria. Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal, 4(1), 34-44.
  • Ogwu, M.C. and Osawaru, M.E. (2014). Comparative study of the microflora population on the phylloplane of common okra [Abelmoschus esculentus l. (Moench.)]. Nigerian Journal of Biotechnology, 28, 17-25.
  • Ogwu, M.C., Oforjamah, I.N., Ahana, C.M., Osawaru, M.E. (2013). Phyloplane assessment of leaf and stalk for consumption and microbial diversity of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L) Lam., Convolvulaceae). Octa Journal of Environmental Research, 1(2), 107-116.
  • Ogwu, M.C., Osawaru, M.E., Atsenokhai, E.I. (2016a). Chemical and microbial evaluation of some indigenous fruits and nuts. Borneo Science, 37(1), 54-71.
  • Ogwu, M.C., Osawaru, M.E., Chime, A.O. (2015). Comparative assessment of plant diversity and utilization patterns of tropical home gardens in Edo state, Nigeria. Scientia Africana, 13(2), 146 – 162.
  • Ogwu, M.C., Osawaru, M.E., Aiwansoba, R.O., Iroh, R.N. (2016b). Status and prospects of vegetables in Africa. Proceedings of NTBA/NSCB Joint Biodiversity Conference; Unilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria. 47-57pp.
  • Oranusi, S., Olorunfemi, O. J. (2011). Microbiological safety evaluation of street vended ready-to-eat fruits sold in Ota, Ogun state, Nigeria. International Journal of Research in Biological Sciences, 1(3), 27-32.
  • Oranusi, S., Galadima, M., Umoh, V.J. & Nwanze, P. I. (2006). Food safety evaluation in boarding schools in Zaria, Nigeria, using the HACCP system. Science Research Essays. 2(10), 426-433.
  • Osawaru, M.E., Ogwu, M.C., Imarhiagbe, O. (2013). Biochemical characterization of some Nigerian Corchorus L. species. Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 6(2), 69-75.
  • Osawaru, M.E., Ogwu, M.C., Ogbeifun, N.S. & Chime, A.O. (2014). Microflora diversity on the phyloplane of wild okra. (Corchorus olitorius L. Jute). Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 6(2), 136-142.
  • Padmini, E., Valarmathi, A., Usha Rani, M. (2010). Comparative analysis of chemical composition and Antibacterial activities of Mentha spicata and Camellia sinensis. Asian Journal of Experimental Biological Sciences, 1(4), 772-7815.
  • Panda, S., Bandyopadhyay, P.K. (2013). Chemical information from GCMS studies of methanolic leaf extract of Andrographis paniculata and Datura metel and their antibacterial activity against isolated Pseudomonas aeruginosa (pb112) strain. International Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Biological Science, 4(1), 909-915.
  • Raguati, M., Novirman, J., Mardiati, Z., Endri, M. (2015). Exploration of natural probiotics from Pineapple peels (Ananas Comosus) as a Source of Feed Supplements for Ruminants. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare, 5(20), 98-104.
  • Rheinheimer, S. (1980). Aquatic Microbiology. Willey Inter Science Publication Chichester, 225 pp. ISBN: 047127643X
  • Sabahelkhier, K.M., Hussain, A.S., Ishag, K.E.A. (2010). Effect of maturity stage on protein fractionation, in vitro protein digestibility and anti-nutrition factors in pineapple (Ananas comosus) fruit grown in Southern Sudan. African Journal of Food Science, 4(8), 550-552. Tambekar D.H., Jaiswal, V.J., Dhanorkar, D.V., Gulhane, P.B., Dudhane, M.N. (2009). Microbial Quality and safety of street vended fruit juices, a case study of Amravati city. Internet Journal of Food Safety, 10, 72-76.
  • Tambekar, D.H., Dahikar S.B. (2010). Antibacterial Potential of Some Herbal Preparation, an Alternative Medicine in Treatment of Enteric Bacterial Infection. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2, 4-13. Tambekar, D.H., Gulhane, S.R., Jaisingkar, R.S., Wangikar, M.S., Banginwar, Y.S., Mogarekar, M.R. (2008b). Household Water management: a systematic study of bacteriological contamination between source and point-of-use. American-Eurasian Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Science, 3(2), 241-246.
  • Tambekar, D.H., Jaiswal, V.J., Dhanorkar, D.V., Gulhane, P.B., Dudhane, M.N. (2008a). Identification of microbiological hazards and safety of ready-to-eat food vended in streets of Amravati City, India. Journal of Applied Bioscience, 7, 195-201. Vanderzant, C., Splittstoesser, D.F. (1992). Compendium of Methods for the Microbiological Examination of Foods. American Public Health Association. Washington D. C. 44-61p. ISBN: 0875531733
  • Visvanathan, P., Kaur, R. (2001). Prevalence and growth of pathogens on salad vegetables, fruits and sprouts. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 203(3), 205-213.
  • von der Osten, C.H., Gioannetti, C., Sinskey, A.J. (1989). Design of a defined medium for growth of Corynebacterium glutamicum in which citrate facilitates iron uptake. Biotechnology Letters, 11(1), 11-16.
  • WHO (2002). WHO Global Strategy for Food Safety, Safer Food for Better Health. In, Food Safety Issues. WHO, Geneva. 26p. (Accessed on 12/03/2015).
  • Wiseman, M. (2008). The second World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research expert report. Food, nutrition, physical activity and the prevention of cancer, a global perspective. Proceeding of Nutritional Society, 67(3), 253-256.
Primary Language en
Subjects Food Science and Technology
Journal Section Research Articles

Orcid: 0000-0001-6054-1667
Author: Matthew Chidozie OGWU (Primary Author)
Institution: School of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanakro, Gwanakgu, Seoul
Country: South Korea

Orcid: 0000-0002-0968-3923
Author: Faith Osasu-oviaesu OMOROTİONMWAN
Institution: Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Benin, Benin City
Country: Nigeria

Orcid: 0000-0001-7688-3979
Author: Happiness İsioma OGWU
Institution: Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Universi-ty of Benin, Benin City
Country: Nigeria


Application Date : January 22, 2018
Acceptance Date : March 5, 2018
Publication Date : January 1, 2019

Bibtex @research article { jfhs382307, journal = {Food and Health}, issn = {}, eissn = {2602-2834}, address = {Vidin Caddesi No:28 D:4 Kocamustafapaşa 34107 Fatih İstanbul}, publisher = {Özkan ÖZDEN}, year = {2019}, volume = {5}, pages = {1 - 11}, doi = {10.3153/FH19001}, title = {ANTIBACTERIAL CHARACTERISTICS AND BACTERIA COMPOSITION OF PINEAPPLE (Ananas comosus [Linn.] Merr.) PEEL AND PULP}, key = {cite}, author = {Ogwu, Matthew Chidozie and Omorotionmwan, Faith Osasu-oviaesu and Ogwu, Happiness İsioma} }
APA Ogwu, M , Omorotionmwan, F , Ogwu, H . (2019). ANTIBACTERIAL CHARACTERISTICS AND BACTERIA COMPOSITION OF PINEAPPLE (Ananas comosus [Linn.] Merr.) PEEL AND PULP . Food and Health , 5 (1) , 1-11 . DOI: 10.3153/FH19001
MLA Ogwu, M , Omorotionmwan, F , Ogwu, H . "ANTIBACTERIAL CHARACTERISTICS AND BACTERIA COMPOSITION OF PINEAPPLE (Ananas comosus [Linn.] Merr.) PEEL AND PULP" . Food and Health 5 (2019 ): 1-11 <>
Chicago Ogwu, M , Omorotionmwan, F , Ogwu, H . "ANTIBACTERIAL CHARACTERISTICS AND BACTERIA COMPOSITION OF PINEAPPLE (Ananas comosus [Linn.] Merr.) PEEL AND PULP". Food and Health 5 (2019 ): 1-11
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - ANTIBACTERIAL CHARACTERISTICS AND BACTERIA COMPOSITION OF PINEAPPLE (Ananas comosus [Linn.] Merr.) PEEL AND PULP AU - Matthew Chidozie Ogwu , Faith Osasu-oviaesu Omorotionmwan , Happiness İsioma Ogwu Y1 - 2019 PY - 2019 N1 - doi: 10.3153/FH19001 DO - 10.3153/FH19001 T2 - Food and Health JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 1 EP - 11 VL - 5 IS - 1 SN - -2602-2834 M3 - doi: 10.3153/FH19001 UR - Y2 - 2018 ER -
EndNote %0 Food and Health ANTIBACTERIAL CHARACTERISTICS AND BACTERIA COMPOSITION OF PINEAPPLE (Ananas comosus [Linn.] Merr.) PEEL AND PULP %A Matthew Chidozie Ogwu , Faith Osasu-oviaesu Omorotionmwan , Happiness İsioma Ogwu %T ANTIBACTERIAL CHARACTERISTICS AND BACTERIA COMPOSITION OF PINEAPPLE (Ananas comosus [Linn.] Merr.) PEEL AND PULP %D 2019 %J Food and Health %P -2602-2834 %V 5 %N 1 %R doi: 10.3153/FH19001 %U 10.3153/FH19001
ISNAD Ogwu, Matthew Chidozie , Omorotionmwan, Faith Osasu-oviaesu , Ogwu, Happiness İsioma . "ANTIBACTERIAL CHARACTERISTICS AND BACTERIA COMPOSITION OF PINEAPPLE (Ananas comosus [Linn.] Merr.) PEEL AND PULP". Food and Health 5 / 1 (January 2019): 1-11 .
AMA Ogwu M , Omorotionmwan F , Ogwu H . ANTIBACTERIAL CHARACTERISTICS AND BACTERIA COMPOSITION OF PINEAPPLE (Ananas comosus [Linn.] Merr.) PEEL AND PULP. Food Health. 2019; 5(1): 1-11.
Vancouver Ogwu M , Omorotionmwan F , Ogwu H . ANTIBACTERIAL CHARACTERISTICS AND BACTERIA COMPOSITION OF PINEAPPLE (Ananas comosus [Linn.] Merr.) PEEL AND PULP. Food and Health. 2019; 5(1): 1-11.
IEEE M. Ogwu , F. Omorotionmwan and H. Ogwu , "ANTIBACTERIAL CHARACTERISTICS AND BACTERIA COMPOSITION OF PINEAPPLE (Ananas comosus [Linn.] Merr.) PEEL AND PULP", Food and Health, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 1-11, Jan. 2019, doi:10.3153/FH19001