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EFFECT OF SOLVENT ON AFLATOXIN CONTENT IN EXTRACTS OF VIRGINIA TYPE PEANUT SKINS

Year 2015, Volume 1, Issue 2, 75 - 83, 02.02.2015
https://doi.org/10.3153/JFHS15007

Abstract

Peanut skins are currently a waste product that may be a potential source of flavonoid rich compounds. In or­der to make use of these compounds, an extract would need to be produced. One of the potential issues with a peanut skin extract could be that any aflatoxins in the whole skins may be concentrated by solvent extraction. A multistep peanut skin extraction (PSE) method (100% water) and a methanol-water method (30:70 and 80:20) were used to extract proanthocyanidins from natural peanut skins samples and from peanut skin sam­ples treated with an aflatoxin standard to determine the recovery by each extraction procedure. Liquid Chroma­tography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) detection was employed for the determination and quantitation of af­latoxins G2, G1, B2, and B1 in the extracts from each of the samples. No aflatoxins of interest were detected in the PSE, 30% methanol aqueous (aq.), and 80% methanol aq. extract of un-spiked peanut skin samples. For aflatoxin spiked standard (G2, G1, B2, B1) sam­ples, the PSE method (100% water) recovered the least aflatoxin with mean recoveries of 1-2%. The 30% methanol aq. procedure yielded mean recoveries of 17-36%. The 80% methanol aq. extraction method recov­ered the most aflatoxin, with mean recoveries of 35-63%. Statistical analysis revealed significant differ­ences in aflatoxin recovery between the three extraction methods, indicating that both concentration and type of extraction solvent play significant roles in extraction of aflatoxin. This study provides evidence that if aflatox­ins are present in the starting material for a flavonoid rich extract, the aflatoxins will carryover and concen­trate in the resultant extract, especially if a high per­centage of methanol is used as the major extraction sol­vent.

References

  • Bacaloni, A., Cavaliere, C., Cucci, F., Foglia, P., Samperi, R., Laganà, A. (2008): Determination of aflatoxins in hazelnuts by various sample preparation methods and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A, 1179: 182-189.
  • Blesa, J., Soriano, J.M., Molto, J.C., Marin, R., Manes, J. (2003): Determination of aflatoxins in peanuts by matrix solid-phase dispersion and liquid chromatography. Journal of Chromatography A, 1011(1-2): 49-54.
  • Bradburn, N., Coker, R.D., Jewers, K., Tomlins, K.I. (1990): Evaluation of the ability of different concentrations of aqueous acetone, aqueous methanol and aqueous acetone: Methanol (1∶1) to extract aflatoxin from naturally contaminated maize. Chromatographia, 29(9-10): 435-440.
  • Cavaliere, C., Foglia, P., Guarino, C., Nzzari, M., Samperi, R., Laganà, A. (2007): A sensitive confirmatory method for aflatoxins in maize based on liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 21: 550-556.
  • Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). (2014): Minimum quality and handling standards for domestic and imported peanuts marketed in the United States. Code title 7, § 996.11
  • Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). (2011): National Toxicology Program Report on Carcinogens, Twelfth Edition. Available from http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/roc/twelfth/profiles/Aflatoxins.pdf. Accessed 2014 April 14.
  • Do, J.H., Choi, D.K. (2007): Aflatoxins: detection, toxicity, and biosynthesis. Biotechnology Bioprocess Engineering, 12(6): 585-593.
  • Hoffpauir, C.L. (1953): Peanut composition, relation to processing and utilization. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 1(10): 668-671.
  • Hussein, H.S., Brasel, J.M. (2001): Toxicity, metabolism, and impact of mycotoxins on humans and animals. Toxicology, 167(2): 101-134.
  • Garcia, M., Blanco, J., Suarez, G. (1994): Aflatoxins B1 and G1 solubility in standard solutions and stability during cold storage. Mycotoxin Ressearch, 10(2): 97-100.
  • Gilbert, J., Vargas, E. (2005): Advances in sampling and analysis for aflatoxins in food and animal feed. In: Abbas H, editor. Aflatoxins and Food Safety. Boca Raton: CRC Press. pp. 237-268.
  • Jaimez, J., Fente, C.A., Vazquez, B.I., Franco, C.M., Cepeda, A., Mahuzier, G., Prognon, P. (2000): Application of the assay of aflatoxins by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection in food analysis. Journal of Chromatography A, 882(1): 1-10.
  • Lamb, M.C., Sternitzke, D.A. (2001): Cost of aflatoxin to the farmer, buying point, and sheller segments of the southeast United States peanut industry. Peanut Science, 28: 59-63.
  • Malmberg, C.G., Maryott, A.A. (1956): Dielectric constant of water from 0° to 100°C. Journal of Research of the National Bureau of Standards, 56(1): 1-8.
  • Masquelier, J. (1987): Inventor; Societe Civile d’Investigations Phamacologiques d’Aquitaine, Horphag Overseas Ltd., assignees. Plant extract with a proanthocyanidins content as therapeutic agent having radical scavenger effect and use thereof. U.S. patent 4, 698, 360.
  • McDaniel, A., Holmes, W.E., Williams, P., Armbrust, K.L., Sparks, D.L., Brown, A.E. (2011): Effect of matrix clean-up for aflatoxin analysis in corn and dried distillers grains. Scientific Research Essays 2(4): 1-8.
  • Mirghani, M.E.S., Man, Y.B.C., Jinap, S., Baharin, B.S., Bakar, J. (2001): A new method for determining aflatoxins in groundnut and groundnut cake using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with attenuated total reflectance. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society, 78(10): 985-992.
  • Nepote, V., Grosso, N.R., Guzman, C.A. (2000): Antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts from peanut skin. Molecules, 5(3): 391-395.
  • Nonaka, Y., Saito, K., Hanioka, N., Narimatsu, S., Kataoka, H. (2009): Determination of aflatoxins in food samples by automated on-line in-tube solid-phase microextraction coupled with liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A, 1216(20): 4416-4422.
  • Passone, M.A., Resnik, S., Etcheverry, M.G. (2007): Potential use of phenolic antioxidants on peanut to control growth and aflatoxin B1 accumulation by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 87(11): 2121-2130.
  • Rustom, I.Y.S. (1997): Aflatoxin in food and feed: occurrence, legislation and inactivation by physical methods. Food Chemistry, 59(1): 57-67.
  • Sarnoski, P.J., Johnson, J.V., Reed, K.A., Tanko, J.M., O’Keefe, S.F. (2012): Separation and characterisation of proanthocyanidins in Virginia type peanut skins by LC–MSn. Food Chemistry, 131(3): 927-939.
  • Scheidegger, K., Payne, G.A. (2005): Unlocking the secrets behind secondary metabolism: A review of Aspergillus flavus from pathogenicity to functional genomics. In: Abbas H, editor. Aflatoxins and Food Safety. Boca Raton: CRC Press. p. 137-166.
  • Shannon, G.M., Shotwell, O.L. (1979): Minicolumn detection methods for aflatoxin in yellow corn: collaborative study. Journal of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 62(5): 1070-1075.
  • Stroka, J., Anklam, E., Jörissen, U., Gilbert, J. (2000): Using post-column bromination for determination of aflatoxins in peanut butter, pistachio paste, fig paste, and paprika powder: Collaborative study. Journal of the AOAC International, 83(2): 320-340.
  • Sweeny, M.J., Dobson, A.D.W. (1998): Mycotoxin production by Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium species. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 43(3): 141-158.
  • University of Washington. (2014). Dielectric Constant of Common Solvents. Available from http://depts.washington.edu/eooptic/linkfiles/dielectric_chart%5B1%5D.pdf. Accessed 2014 April 21.
  • Van Egmond, H.P., Visconti, A., Boenke, A., Speijers, G.J.A. (1995): Mycotoxins and toxic plant components (EC, WHO/IPCS, FAO, and ILSI Europe joint workshop). Natural Toxins, 3(4): 181.
  • Ventura, M., Gomez, A., Diaz, J., Broto, F., Agut, M., Comellas, L. (2004): Determination of aflatoxins B1, G1, B2 and G2 in medicinal herbs by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A, 1048(1): 25-29.

Year 2015, Volume 1, Issue 2, 75 - 83, 02.02.2015
https://doi.org/10.3153/JFHS15007

Abstract

References

  • Bacaloni, A., Cavaliere, C., Cucci, F., Foglia, P., Samperi, R., Laganà, A. (2008): Determination of aflatoxins in hazelnuts by various sample preparation methods and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A, 1179: 182-189.
  • Blesa, J., Soriano, J.M., Molto, J.C., Marin, R., Manes, J. (2003): Determination of aflatoxins in peanuts by matrix solid-phase dispersion and liquid chromatography. Journal of Chromatography A, 1011(1-2): 49-54.
  • Bradburn, N., Coker, R.D., Jewers, K., Tomlins, K.I. (1990): Evaluation of the ability of different concentrations of aqueous acetone, aqueous methanol and aqueous acetone: Methanol (1∶1) to extract aflatoxin from naturally contaminated maize. Chromatographia, 29(9-10): 435-440.
  • Cavaliere, C., Foglia, P., Guarino, C., Nzzari, M., Samperi, R., Laganà, A. (2007): A sensitive confirmatory method for aflatoxins in maize based on liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 21: 550-556.
  • Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). (2014): Minimum quality and handling standards for domestic and imported peanuts marketed in the United States. Code title 7, § 996.11
  • Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). (2011): National Toxicology Program Report on Carcinogens, Twelfth Edition. Available from http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/roc/twelfth/profiles/Aflatoxins.pdf. Accessed 2014 April 14.
  • Do, J.H., Choi, D.K. (2007): Aflatoxins: detection, toxicity, and biosynthesis. Biotechnology Bioprocess Engineering, 12(6): 585-593.
  • Hoffpauir, C.L. (1953): Peanut composition, relation to processing and utilization. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 1(10): 668-671.
  • Hussein, H.S., Brasel, J.M. (2001): Toxicity, metabolism, and impact of mycotoxins on humans and animals. Toxicology, 167(2): 101-134.
  • Garcia, M., Blanco, J., Suarez, G. (1994): Aflatoxins B1 and G1 solubility in standard solutions and stability during cold storage. Mycotoxin Ressearch, 10(2): 97-100.
  • Gilbert, J., Vargas, E. (2005): Advances in sampling and analysis for aflatoxins in food and animal feed. In: Abbas H, editor. Aflatoxins and Food Safety. Boca Raton: CRC Press. pp. 237-268.
  • Jaimez, J., Fente, C.A., Vazquez, B.I., Franco, C.M., Cepeda, A., Mahuzier, G., Prognon, P. (2000): Application of the assay of aflatoxins by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection in food analysis. Journal of Chromatography A, 882(1): 1-10.
  • Lamb, M.C., Sternitzke, D.A. (2001): Cost of aflatoxin to the farmer, buying point, and sheller segments of the southeast United States peanut industry. Peanut Science, 28: 59-63.
  • Malmberg, C.G., Maryott, A.A. (1956): Dielectric constant of water from 0° to 100°C. Journal of Research of the National Bureau of Standards, 56(1): 1-8.
  • Masquelier, J. (1987): Inventor; Societe Civile d’Investigations Phamacologiques d’Aquitaine, Horphag Overseas Ltd., assignees. Plant extract with a proanthocyanidins content as therapeutic agent having radical scavenger effect and use thereof. U.S. patent 4, 698, 360.
  • McDaniel, A., Holmes, W.E., Williams, P., Armbrust, K.L., Sparks, D.L., Brown, A.E. (2011): Effect of matrix clean-up for aflatoxin analysis in corn and dried distillers grains. Scientific Research Essays 2(4): 1-8.
  • Mirghani, M.E.S., Man, Y.B.C., Jinap, S., Baharin, B.S., Bakar, J. (2001): A new method for determining aflatoxins in groundnut and groundnut cake using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with attenuated total reflectance. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society, 78(10): 985-992.
  • Nepote, V., Grosso, N.R., Guzman, C.A. (2000): Antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts from peanut skin. Molecules, 5(3): 391-395.
  • Nonaka, Y., Saito, K., Hanioka, N., Narimatsu, S., Kataoka, H. (2009): Determination of aflatoxins in food samples by automated on-line in-tube solid-phase microextraction coupled with liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A, 1216(20): 4416-4422.
  • Passone, M.A., Resnik, S., Etcheverry, M.G. (2007): Potential use of phenolic antioxidants on peanut to control growth and aflatoxin B1 accumulation by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 87(11): 2121-2130.
  • Rustom, I.Y.S. (1997): Aflatoxin in food and feed: occurrence, legislation and inactivation by physical methods. Food Chemistry, 59(1): 57-67.
  • Sarnoski, P.J., Johnson, J.V., Reed, K.A., Tanko, J.M., O’Keefe, S.F. (2012): Separation and characterisation of proanthocyanidins in Virginia type peanut skins by LC–MSn. Food Chemistry, 131(3): 927-939.
  • Scheidegger, K., Payne, G.A. (2005): Unlocking the secrets behind secondary metabolism: A review of Aspergillus flavus from pathogenicity to functional genomics. In: Abbas H, editor. Aflatoxins and Food Safety. Boca Raton: CRC Press. p. 137-166.
  • Shannon, G.M., Shotwell, O.L. (1979): Minicolumn detection methods for aflatoxin in yellow corn: collaborative study. Journal of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 62(5): 1070-1075.
  • Stroka, J., Anklam, E., Jörissen, U., Gilbert, J. (2000): Using post-column bromination for determination of aflatoxins in peanut butter, pistachio paste, fig paste, and paprika powder: Collaborative study. Journal of the AOAC International, 83(2): 320-340.
  • Sweeny, M.J., Dobson, A.D.W. (1998): Mycotoxin production by Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium species. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 43(3): 141-158.
  • University of Washington. (2014). Dielectric Constant of Common Solvents. Available from http://depts.washington.edu/eooptic/linkfiles/dielectric_chart%5B1%5D.pdf. Accessed 2014 April 21.
  • Van Egmond, H.P., Visconti, A., Boenke, A., Speijers, G.J.A. (1995): Mycotoxins and toxic plant components (EC, WHO/IPCS, FAO, and ILSI Europe joint workshop). Natural Toxins, 3(4): 181.
  • Ventura, M., Gomez, A., Diaz, J., Broto, F., Agut, M., Comellas, L. (2004): Determination of aflatoxins B1, G1, B2 and G2 in medicinal herbs by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A, 1048(1): 25-29.

Details

Subjects Science
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Paul J. SARNOSKİ This is me
University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition
United States


Vanessa E. BİLLİNGSLEY This is me
University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition
United States


Jodie V. JOHNSON This is me
University of Florida, Department of Chemistry, Gainesville
United States


Sean F. O'KEEFE This is me
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Department of Food Science and Technology
United States

Publication Date February 2, 2015
Application Date February 3, 2017
Acceptance Date January 29, 2015
Published in Issue Year 2015, Volume 1, Issue 2

Cite

Bibtex @research article { jfhs289468, journal = {Food and Health}, issn = {}, eissn = {2602-2834}, address = {Vidin Caddesi No:28 D:4 Kocamustafapaşa 34107 Fatih İstanbul}, publisher = {Özkan ÖZDEN}, year = {2015}, volume = {1}, pages = {75 - 83}, doi = {10.3153/JFHS15007}, title = {EFFECT OF SOLVENT ON AFLATOXIN CONTENT IN EXTRACTS OF VIRGINIA TYPE PEANUT SKINS}, key = {cite}, author = {Sarnoski, Paul J. and Billingsley, Vanessa E. and Johnson, Jodie V. and O'keefe, Sean F.} }
APA Sarnoski, P. J. , Billingsley, V. E. , Johnson, J. V. & O'keefe, S. F. (2015). EFFECT OF SOLVENT ON AFLATOXIN CONTENT IN EXTRACTS OF VIRGINIA TYPE PEANUT SKINS . Food and Health , 1 (2) , 75-83 . DOI: 10.3153/JFHS15007
MLA Sarnoski, P. J. , Billingsley, V. E. , Johnson, J. V. , O'keefe, S. F. "EFFECT OF SOLVENT ON AFLATOXIN CONTENT IN EXTRACTS OF VIRGINIA TYPE PEANUT SKINS" . Food and Health 1 (2015 ): 75-83 <http://jfhs.scientificwebjournals.com/en/pub/issue/27526/289468>
Chicago Sarnoski, P. J. , Billingsley, V. E. , Johnson, J. V. , O'keefe, S. F. "EFFECT OF SOLVENT ON AFLATOXIN CONTENT IN EXTRACTS OF VIRGINIA TYPE PEANUT SKINS". Food and Health 1 (2015 ): 75-83
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - EFFECT OF SOLVENT ON AFLATOXIN CONTENT IN EXTRACTS OF VIRGINIA TYPE PEANUT SKINS AU - Paul J. Sarnoski , Vanessa E. Billingsley , Jodie V. Johnson , Sean F. O'keefe Y1 - 2015 PY - 2015 N1 - doi: 10.3153/JFHS15007 DO - 10.3153/JFHS15007 T2 - Food and Health JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 75 EP - 83 VL - 1 IS - 2 SN - -2602-2834 M3 - doi: 10.3153/JFHS15007 UR - https://doi.org/10.3153/JFHS15007 Y2 - 2015 ER -
EndNote %0 Food and Health EFFECT OF SOLVENT ON AFLATOXIN CONTENT IN EXTRACTS OF VIRGINIA TYPE PEANUT SKINS %A Paul J. Sarnoski , Vanessa E. Billingsley , Jodie V. Johnson , Sean F. O'keefe %T EFFECT OF SOLVENT ON AFLATOXIN CONTENT IN EXTRACTS OF VIRGINIA TYPE PEANUT SKINS %D 2015 %J Food and Health %P -2602-2834 %V 1 %N 2 %R doi: 10.3153/JFHS15007 %U 10.3153/JFHS15007
ISNAD Sarnoski, Paul J. , Billingsley, Vanessa E. , Johnson, Jodie V. , O'keefe, Sean F. . "EFFECT OF SOLVENT ON AFLATOXIN CONTENT IN EXTRACTS OF VIRGINIA TYPE PEANUT SKINS". Food and Health 1 / 2 (February 2015): 75-83 . https://doi.org/10.3153/JFHS15007
AMA Sarnoski P. J. , Billingsley V. E. , Johnson J. V. , O'keefe S. F. EFFECT OF SOLVENT ON AFLATOXIN CONTENT IN EXTRACTS OF VIRGINIA TYPE PEANUT SKINS. Food Health. 2015; 1(2): 75-83.
Vancouver Sarnoski P. J. , Billingsley V. E. , Johnson J. V. , O'keefe S. F. EFFECT OF SOLVENT ON AFLATOXIN CONTENT IN EXTRACTS OF VIRGINIA TYPE PEANUT SKINS. Food and Health. 2015; 1(2): 75-83.
IEEE P. J. Sarnoski , V. E. Billingsley , J. V. Johnson and S. F. O'keefe , "EFFECT OF SOLVENT ON AFLATOXIN CONTENT IN EXTRACTS OF VIRGINIA TYPE PEANUT SKINS", Food and Health, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 75-83, Feb. 2015, doi:10.3153/JFHS15007

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