Year 2019, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 197 - 204 2019-07-01

ÇİĞ SÜT ve PASTÖRİZE SÜT TÜKETİMİNİN HALK SAĞLIĞI ÜZERİNE ETKİLERİ
THE EFFECTS OF RAW MILK AND PASTEURIZED MILK CONSUMPTION ON PUBLIC HEALTH

Artun Yıbar [1] , Sefa Can Küçük [2]

0 336

Süt insanın büyümesi, gelişmesi ve yaşamını devam ettirmesi için gerekli olan hemen hemen tüm besin öğelerini içermektedir. Süt ve süt ürünleri tüketiminin besleyici ve sağlığa faydalı etkilerine rağmen, çiğ süt halk sağlığı üzerinde ciddi riskler oluşturabilecek Salmonella, E. coli ve Listeria gibi tehlikeli mikroorganizmaları barındırabilir. Çiğ sütte bulunabilecek olası patojen mikroorganizmaları tahrip edebilmek ve sütün besin değerini koruyabilmek için uluslararası normlarda kabul gören ısıl işlemler uygulanmaktadır. Pastörizasyon, belirli bir süre boyunca çiğ sütü belirli bir sıcaklığa kadar ısıtmak suretiyle zararlı bakterileri öldüren bir işlemdir. Pastörizasyon güvenli, besin öğeleri bakımından zengin süt ve süt ürünleri üretmeye yardımcı olurken, bazı araştırmacılar pastörizasyon işleminin sütteki önemli besin öğelerini yok ettiğini, çiğ sütün astım ve alerjilerin azaltılması gibi terapötik özelliklere sahip olduğunu ve daha güvenli bir alternatif olduğunu iddia etmektedir. Bu derlemede, literatürler eşliğinde pastörizasyonun sütün besin kalitesi üzerine etkisi ve çiğ sütün iddia edilen potansiyel faydaları eleştirel olarak anlatılmıştır.

Milk contains almost all the necessary nutrients needed for the growth, development and survival of a person. Despite the beneficial effects of consumption of milk and dairy products on nutrition and health, raw milk can harbor dangerous microorganisms such as Salmonella, E. coli and Listeria, which can pose serious health risks. In order to destroy possible pathogenic microorganisms that may be found in raw milk and to protect nutritional value, heat treatments accepted in international norms are applied. Pasteurization is a process that destroys harmful bacteria by heating the raw milk to a certain Temperature for a certain period of time. While pasteurization helps provide safe, nutritious milk and cheese, some people claim that pasteurisation destroys important nutritional items in the milk, has the therapeutic properties of such as asthma and reduction of allergies, and is a safer alternative. In this review, in the conjunction with the literatüre, the effect of pasteurisation on the quality of milk nutrients and alleged potential benefits of raw milk are described as critical.

  • AAP. (2014). Consumption of raw or unpasteurized milk and milk products by pregnant women and children. Pediatrics, 133(1), 175-179.
  • Abbring, S., Verheijden, K.A.T., Diks, M.A.P., Leusink-Muis, A., Hols, G., Baars, T., Garssen, J., van Esch B.C.A.M. (2017). Raw cow’s milk prevents the development of airway ınflammation in a murine house dust mite-ınduced asthma model. Frontiers in Immunology, 8, 1-10.
  • Anonim (2018). Milk as a growth medium. https://www.uoguelph.ca/foodscience/book-page/milk-growth-medium (Erişim Tarihi: 30.08.2018).
  • Beerens, H., Perriere B.H.B., Gavini, F. (2000). Evaluation of the hygienic quality of raw milk based on the presence of bifidobacteria: the cow as a source of faecal contamination. International Journal of Food Microbiology,, 54(3), 163-169.
  • Castillo, D.S., Cassola, A. (2017). Novel sensitive monoclonal antibody based competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of raw and processed bovine beta-casein. Plos One, 12(7), 1-19.
  • Chaneton, L., Tirante, L., Malto, J., Chaves, J., Bussmann, L.E. (2008). Relationship between milk lactoferrin and etiological agent in the mastitic bovine mammary gland. Journal of Dairy Science, 91,1865-1873.
  • Claeys, W.L., Cardoen, S., Daube, G., Block, J., Dewettinck, K., Dierick, K., Zutter, L.D., Huyghebaert, A., Imberechts, H., Thiange, P., Vandenplas, Y., Herman, L. (2013). Raw or heated cow milk consumption: Rewiew of risks and benefits. Food Control, 31, 251-262.
  • Costard, S., Espejo, L., Groenendaal, H., Zagmutt, F.J. (2017). Outbreak-related disease burden associated with consumption of unpasteurized cow’s milk and cheese, united states, 2009-2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(6), 957-964.
  • Czaplicki, A. (2007). Pure milk ıs better than purified milk. Social Science History, 31(3), 411-433.
  • David, S.D. (2014). Raw milk and the first amendment: Imlications for public health policy and practice. Public Health Reports, 129, 455-457.
  • Delcenserie, V., Bechoux, N., China, B., Daube, G., Gavini, F. (2005). A PCR method for detection of bifidobacteria in raw milk and raw milk cheese: comparison with culture-based methods. Journal of Microbiological Methods, 61, 55-67.
  • Delcenserie, V., Gavini, F., China, B., Daube, G. (2011). Bifidobacterium pseudolongum are efficient indicators of animal fecal contamination in raw milk cheese industry. BioMed Central Microbiology, 11, 1-9.
  • Enticott, G. (2003). Risking the rural: natüre, morality and the consumption of unpasteurised milk. Journal of Rural Studies, 19(4), 411-424.
  • Fahrländer, C.B., Mutius, E.V. (2010). Can farm milk consumption prevent allergic diseases. Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 41, 29-35.
  • FDA. (2017). Grade “A” Pasteurized Milk Ordinance-2017 Revision. https://www.fda.gov/downloads/Food/GuidanceRegulation/GuidanceDocumentsRegulatoryInformation/Milk/UCM612027.pdf (Erişim Tarihi: 30.08.2018).
  • FDA. (2018a). The Dangers of Raw Milk: Unpasteurized Milk Can Pose a Serious Health Risk. https://www.fda.gov/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants/buystoreservesafefood/ucm079516.htm (Erişim Tarihi: 30.08.2018).
  • FDA. (2018b). Raw Milk Misconceptions and the Danger of Raw Milk Consumption. https://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodborneIllnessContaminants/BuyStoreServeSafeFood/ucm247991.htm (Erişim Tarihi: 30.08.2018).
  • FDA. (2018c). Problems Digesting Dairy Products?. https://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/ucm094550.htm (Erişim Tarihi: 30.08.2018).
  • Gözener, B., Sayılı, M. (2013). Tüketicilerin açık süt ve süt ürünleri tüketim tercihlerinin incelenmesi: Tokat-Turhal ilçesi örneği. Sosyal Bilimler Araştırmaları Dergisi, 1, 160-175.
  • Güzeler, N., Esmek, E.M. (2017). Okul sütü programı: Osmaniye ili örneği. Çukurova Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi, 32(2), 15-26.
  • Heine, R.G., AlRefaee, F., Bachina, P., De leon, J.C., Geng, L., Gong, S., Madrazo, J.A., Ngamphaiboon, J., Ong, C., Rogacion, J.M. (2017). Lactose intolerance and gastrointestinal cow’s milk allergy in infants and children- common misconceptions revisited. World Allergy Organization Journal, 10, 1-8.
  • Jarde, A., Lewis-Mikhael, A.M., Moayyedi, P., Stearns J.C., Collins, S.M., Beyene, J., McDonald, S.D. (2018). Pregnancy Outcomes in women taking probiotics or prebiotics: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BioMed Central Pregnancy and Childbirth, 18(1), 1-14.
  • Karakaya, E., Akbay, C. (2014). İstanbul ili kentsel alanda tüketicilerin açık ve paket süt tüketim alışkanlıkları. Tarım Ekonomisi Dergisi, 20(1), 17-27.
  • Lacroix, M., Leonil, J., Bos, C., Henry, G., Airinel, G., Fauquant, J., Tome, D., Gaudichon, C. (2006). Heat markers and quality ındexes of ındustrially heat-treated [15n] milk protein measured in rats. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 54, 1508-1517.
  • Langer, A.J., Ayers, T., Grass, J., Lynch, M., Angulo, F.J., Mahon, B.E. (2012). Nonpasteurized dairy products, disease outbreaks, and state laws- United States, 1993-2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(3), 385-391.
  • LeJeune, J.T., Rajala-Schultz, P.J. (2009). Food safety: unpasteurized milk: a continued public helath threat. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 48(1), 93-100.
  • Lucey, J.A. (2015). Raw milk consumption. Nutrition Today, 50(4), 189-193.
  • Macdonald, L.E., Brett, J., Kelton, D., Majowicz, S.E., Snedeker, K., Sargeant, J.M. (2011). A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of pasteurization on milk vitamins, and evidence for raw milk consumption and other health-related outcomes. Journal of Food Protection, 77(11), 1814-1832.
  • Markowiak, P., Slizewska, K. (2017). Effects of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics on human health. Nutrients, 9(9), 1-30.
  • Mullin, G.E., Belkoff, S.M. (2014). Survey to determine why people drink raw milk. Global Advances Health and Medicine, 3(6), 19-24.
  • Mummah, S., Oelrich, B., Hope, J., Vu, Q., Gardner, C.D. (2014). Effect of raw milk on lactose ıntolerance: a randomized controlled pilot study. Annals of Family Medicine, 12(2), 134-141.
  • Mungai, E.A., Behravesh, C.B., Gould, L.H. (2015). Increased outbreaks associated with nonpasteurized milk, United States, 2007-2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(1), 119-122.
  • Musayeva, K., Sederevicius, A., Zelvyte, R., Monkeviciene, I., Beliavska-Aleksiejune, D., Kerziene, S. (2016). Concentration of lactoferrin and immünoglobulin G in cows’ milk in relation to health status of the udder, lactation and season. Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 19(4), 737-744.
  • Onurlubaş, E., Yılmaz, N. (2013). The factors affecting milk consumption preferences of the consumers in Edirne Keşan township. Journal of Food, Agriculture & Environment, 11(3&4), 516-518.
  • Peila, C., Moro, G.E., Bertino, E., Cavallarin, L., Giribaldi, M., Giuliani, F., Cresi, F., Coscia, A. (2016). The effect of holder pasteurization on nutrients and biologically-active components in donor human milk human milk: A review. Nutrients, 8(8), 1-19.
  • Pereira, P.C. (2014). Milk Nutritional Composition and its role in human health. Nutrition, 30, 619-627.
  • Sarkar, S. (2016). Microbiological safety concerns of raw milk. Journal of Food Nutrition and Dietetics, 1(2), 1-7.
  • Taşdemir, A. (2017). Probiyotikler, prebiyotikler ve sinbiyotikler. Kastamonu Sağlık Akademisi, 2(1), 71-88.
  • T.C. Sağlık Bakanlığı. (2018). Sağlıklı Bir Gelecek İçin Süt İçin. https://www.saglik.gov.tr/TR,2552/brsaglikli-bir-gelecek-icin-sut-icin.html (Erişim Tarihi: 30.08.2018).
  • Topcu, Y., Baram, D., Denizli, G. (2016). Tüketicilerin süt tüketim tercih modellerini temel alan pazarlama taktik ve stratejilerinin belirlenmesi. Alınteri Zirai Bilimler Dergisi, 31, 18-32.
  • Truswell, A.S. (2005). The A2 milk case: a critical review. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 59(5), 623-631.
  • Tse, K., Horner, A.A. (2008). Allergen tolerance versus the allergic march: The hygiene hypothesis revisited. Current Allergy and Asthma Reports, 8(6), 475-483. Vrankes, A.P., Popovic, M., Jevtic, M. (2015). Raw milk consumption and health. Srpski Arhiv za Celokupno Lekarstvo, 143(1-2), 87-92.
  • WHO. (2018). The challenges of preventing bovine tuberculosis. http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/96/2/18-020218/en/ (Erişim Tarihi: 30.08.2018).
  • Yu, J., Miller, R.L. (2016). Got milk? Understanding the farm milk effect in allergy and asthma Prevention. The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 137(6), 1707-1708.
Primary Language tr
Subjects Food Science and Technology
Journal Section Review
Authors

Orcid: 0000-0001-9510-5734
Author: Artun Yıbar (Primary Author)
Institution: Uludağ Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Besin Hijyeni ve Teknolojisi A.B.D., Görükle, Bursa
Country: Turkey


Orcid: 0000-0002-0919-5874
Author: Sefa Can Küçük
Institution: Uludağ Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Besin Hijyeni ve Teknolojisi A.B.D., Görükle, Bursa
Country: Turkey


Dates

Publication Date: July 1, 2019

Bibtex @review { jfhs459332, journal = {FOOD and HEALTH}, issn = {}, eissn = {2602-2834}, address = {ScientificWebJournals}, year = {2019}, volume = {5}, pages = {197 - 204}, doi = {10.3153/FH19021}, title = {ÇİĞ SÜT ve PASTÖRİZE SÜT TÜKETİMİNİN HALK SAĞLIĞI ÜZERİNE ETKİLERİ}, key = {cite}, author = {Yıbar, Artun and Küçük, Sefa Can} }
APA Yıbar, A , Küçük, S . (2019). ÇİĞ SÜT ve PASTÖRİZE SÜT TÜKETİMİNİN HALK SAĞLIĞI ÜZERİNE ETKİLERİ. FOOD and HEALTH, 5 (3), 197-204. DOI: 10.3153/FH19021
MLA Yıbar, A , Küçük, S . "ÇİĞ SÜT ve PASTÖRİZE SÜT TÜKETİMİNİN HALK SAĞLIĞI ÜZERİNE ETKİLERİ". FOOD and HEALTH 5 (2019): 197-204 <http://jfhs.scientificwebjournals.com/issue/42227/459332>
Chicago Yıbar, A , Küçük, S . "ÇİĞ SÜT ve PASTÖRİZE SÜT TÜKETİMİNİN HALK SAĞLIĞI ÜZERİNE ETKİLERİ". FOOD and HEALTH 5 (2019): 197-204
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - ÇİĞ SÜT ve PASTÖRİZE SÜT TÜKETİMİNİN HALK SAĞLIĞI ÜZERİNE ETKİLERİ AU - Artun Yıbar , Sefa Can Küçük Y1 - 2019 PY - 2019 N1 - doi: 10.3153/FH19021 DO - 10.3153/FH19021 T2 - FOOD and HEALTH JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 197 EP - 204 VL - 5 IS - 3 SN - -2602-2834 M3 - doi: 10.3153/FH19021 UR - https://doi.org/10.3153/FH19021 Y2 - 2018 ER -
EndNote %0 FOOD and HEALTH ÇİĞ SÜT ve PASTÖRİZE SÜT TÜKETİMİNİN HALK SAĞLIĞI ÜZERİNE ETKİLERİ %A Artun Yıbar , Sefa Can Küçük %T ÇİĞ SÜT ve PASTÖRİZE SÜT TÜKETİMİNİN HALK SAĞLIĞI ÜZERİNE ETKİLERİ %D 2019 %J FOOD and HEALTH %P -2602-2834 %V 5 %N 3 %R doi: 10.3153/FH19021 %U 10.3153/FH19021
ISNAD Yıbar, Artun , Küçük, Sefa Can . "ÇİĞ SÜT ve PASTÖRİZE SÜT TÜKETİMİNİN HALK SAĞLIĞI ÜZERİNE ETKİLERİ". FOOD and HEALTH 5 / 3 (July 2019): 197-204. https://doi.org/10.3153/FH19021
AMA Yıbar A , Küçük S . ÇİĞ SÜT ve PASTÖRİZE SÜT TÜKETİMİNİN HALK SAĞLIĞI ÜZERİNE ETKİLERİ. Food Health. 2019; 5(3): 197-204.
Vancouver Yıbar A , Küçük S . ÇİĞ SÜT ve PASTÖRİZE SÜT TÜKETİMİNİN HALK SAĞLIĞI ÜZERİNE ETKİLERİ. FOOD and HEALTH. 2019; 5(3): 204-197.