Year 2016, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 184 - 188 2016-09-20

CHILLING RATE OF COOKED RICE AND RISK OF Bacillus cereus GROWTH IN RESTAURANT OPERATION

Nezih Müftügil [1]

400 1995

The emetic syndrome of B. cereus food poisoning is often connected with consumption of rice.  When cooked rice is cooled slowly and stored between 10°C to 50°C B. cereus spores germinate and reach numbers high enough to cause illness.

Cooked rice is often slowly chilled in most of the restaurants. In the absence of rapid cooling instruments such as blast chiller and cold room, cooked rice, as a common practice is kept at room temperature for cooling for a long time before putting into a refrigerator.

In this study, cooked rice in 10 cm deep in a pan was chilled in a blast chiller, cold room, refrigerator and at ambient and the cooling rates between the temperature zone of 50ºC to 10ºC were determined. Except the chilling in a blast chiller, in no other chilling methods the instructed/recommended four hours chilling time was achieved.  Chilling of rice from 50ºC to 10ºC in a refrigerator took 12.5-13.5 hours. Chilling time came down to around 10 hours when thickness of rice in the pan was reduced to 5 cm. Chilling time was much longer (15.5-16.5 hours) when the rice was held at ambient until the centre temperature was 30 ºC before putting into the refrigerator. It is obvious that the commonly applied rice chilling in the restaurants is not safe. Some other practical ways other than reducing the thickness of rice should also be applied.

Rice, Chilling, Bacillus cereus, Restaurant
  • Agata, N., Ohta, M. & Yokoyama, K. (2002). Production of Bacillus cereus emetic toxin (cereulide) in various foods. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 73, 23-27.
  • Arnesen, S.L.P., Fagerlund, A. & Granum, PE. (2008). From soil to gut: Bacillus cereus and its food poisoning toxins. FEMS Microbiology Reviews, 32, 579-606.
  • Andersson, A., Ronner, U. & Granum, P.E. (1995). What problems does the food industry have with the spore-forming pathogenes Bacillus cereus and Clostridium perfirengens? International Journal of Food Microbiology, 28(2), 145-155.
  • Becker, H., Schaller, G., Von Wiese, W. & Terplan, G. (1994). Bacillus cereus in infant’s foods and dried milk products. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 23(1), 1-15.
  • Drobniewski, F.A. (1993). Bacillus cereus and related species. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 6(4), 324-338.
  • EFSA (2012). The European Union summary report on trends and sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents and foodborne outbreaks in 2011. EFSA Journal, 10(3), 2597.
  • FDA (2012). Bad bug book: Foodborne pathogenic microorganism and natural toxins handbook, 2nd ed. US Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, 93-96.
  • FDA (1997). Food Code. U.S. Dept. Of Health and Human Services. Public Health Service. Food and Drug Administration, Pub. No. PB97-141204. Washington, D.C.
  • Fermanian, C., Laeyre, C., Fremy, J. & Claisse, M. (1997). Diarrhoeal toxin production at low temperatures by selected strains of B. cereus. Journal of Dairy Research 64, 551-559.
  • Finlay, WJJ., Logan, NA. & Sutherland, AD. (2000). Bacillus cereus produces most emetic toxin at lower temperatures. Letter in Applied Microbiology, 31, 385-389.
  • Finlay, W.J.J., Logan, NA. & Sutherland, AD. (2002). Bacillus cereus toxin production in cooked rice. Food Microbiology, 19, 431-439.
  • FSANZ (2016). Food Standards Australia New Zealand. Food Standards Code. Food safety Practices and General Requirements.
  • Granum, P.E. (1994). Bacillus cerus and its toxins. Society for Applied Bacteriology Smyposium series23, 61-66.
  • IFSA (International Flight Service Association), (2016). World Food Safety Guidelines for Airline Catering. Control of food chilling, 19.
  • ICMFS (1996). Bacillus cereus. Microrganisms in Foods 5: Microbiological specifications of food pathogenes ,20-35. Blackie Academic and Professional, London.
  • Johnson, K. M. (1984). Bacillus cereus foodborne illness-An update. Journal of Food Protection, 47, 145-153.
  • Kotiranta, A., Lounatmaa, K. & Haapasalo, M. (2000). Epidemiology and pathogenesis of Bacillus cereus infections. Microbes and Infection, 2(2), 189-198.
  • Kramer, J.M. & Gilbert, R.J. (1989). Bacillus cereus and other Bacillus species,21-70. In M. P. Dyle (ed.) Foodborne Bacterial Pathogenes. Marcel Decker, New York, NY.
  • Leguerinel, I. & Mafart, M. (2001). Modelling the influence of pH and organic acid types on thermal inactivation of Bacillus cereus spores. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 63, 29-34.
  • McElroy, D., Jaykus, L. & Foegeding, P.M. (1999). A quantative risk assessment for Bacillus cereus emetic disease associated with the consumption of Chinese-style fried rice. Journal of Food Safety, 19(3), 209-229.
  • Scallan, E., Hoekstra, RM. & Angulo, FJ. (2011). Foodborne illness acquired in the United States-Major pathogenes. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(1), 7-11
  • Schoeni, J.L. & Wong, A.C.L. (2005). Bacillus cereus food poisoning and its toxins. Journal of Food Protection, 68(3), 636-648.
  • Wijlands, L.M. (2008). Bacillus cereus associated disease: Quantitative aspects of exposure assessment and hazard characterization. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
Subjects Science
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Author: Nezih Müftügil
Institution: OKAN ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Country: Turkey


Bibtex @research article { jfhs289848, journal = {FOOD and HEALTH}, issn = {}, eissn = {2602-2834}, address = {ScientificWebJournals}, year = {2016}, volume = {2}, pages = {184 - 188}, doi = {10.3153/JFHS16019}, title = {CHILLING RATE OF COOKED RICE AND RISK OF Bacillus cereus GROWTH IN RESTAURANT OPERATION}, key = {cite}, author = {Müftügil, Nezih} }
APA Müftügil, N . (2016). CHILLING RATE OF COOKED RICE AND RISK OF Bacillus cereus GROWTH IN RESTAURANT OPERATION. FOOD and HEALTH, 2 (4), 184-188. DOI: 10.3153/JFHS16019
MLA Müftügil, N . "CHILLING RATE OF COOKED RICE AND RISK OF Bacillus cereus GROWTH IN RESTAURANT OPERATION". FOOD and HEALTH 2 (2016): 184-188 <http://jfhs.scientificwebjournals.com/issue/27553/289848>
Chicago Müftügil, N . "CHILLING RATE OF COOKED RICE AND RISK OF Bacillus cereus GROWTH IN RESTAURANT OPERATION". FOOD and HEALTH 2 (2016): 184-188
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - CHILLING RATE OF COOKED RICE AND RISK OF Bacillus cereus GROWTH IN RESTAURANT OPERATION AU - Nezih Müftügil Y1 - 2016 PY - 2016 N1 - doi: 10.3153/JFHS16019 DO - 10.3153/JFHS16019 T2 - FOOD and HEALTH JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 184 EP - 188 VL - 2 IS - 4 SN - -2602-2834 M3 - doi: 10.3153/JFHS16019 UR - https://doi.org/10.3153/JFHS16019 Y2 - 2016 ER -
EndNote %0 FOOD and HEALTH CHILLING RATE OF COOKED RICE AND RISK OF Bacillus cereus GROWTH IN RESTAURANT OPERATION %A Nezih Müftügil %T CHILLING RATE OF COOKED RICE AND RISK OF Bacillus cereus GROWTH IN RESTAURANT OPERATION %D 2016 %J FOOD and HEALTH %P -2602-2834 %V 2 %N 4 %R doi: 10.3153/JFHS16019 %U 10.3153/JFHS16019
ISNAD Müftügil, Nezih . "CHILLING RATE OF COOKED RICE AND RISK OF Bacillus cereus GROWTH IN RESTAURANT OPERATION". FOOD and HEALTH 2 / 4 (September 2016): 184-188. https://doi.org/10.3153/JFHS16019